Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Californium – Kalifornium – Californium – Californio – カリホルニウム – Калифорний – 鐦
Californium Frisian (West)
Californiu Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicКалифорний [Kalifornij] Bulgarian
Каліфорній [kalifornij] Belarusian
Калифорниум [Kalifornium] Macedonian
Калифорний [Kalifornij] Russian
Калифорнијум [Kalifornijum] Serbian
Каліфорній [kalifornij] Ukrainian
Calafoirniam Gaelic (Irish)
Calafoirniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Californium Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΚαλιφορνιο [kalifornio] Greek
Կալիֆոռնիում [kalifoŗnium] Armenian
Kalefornium, ²Californiumi Albanian
Калифорний [kalifornij] Ossetian
Калифорний [Kaliforni'] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanক্যালিফোর্নিয়াম [kyāliphorniẏāma] Bengali
کالیفورنیم [kalyfwrnym] Persian
કૅલિફોર્નિયમનો [keliphorniyamano] Gujarati
कैलीफोर्नियम [kailīphorniyama] Hindi
Калифорний [Kalifornij] Komi
Калифорний [Kalifornij] Mari
Калифорни [kaliforni] Moksha
Калифорни [Kaliforni] Chuvash
Калифорний [kalifornij] Kazakh
Калифорний [Kalifornij] Kyrgyz
Калифорни [kaliforni] Mongolian
كالىفورنىي [kaliforniy] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Kalifornioa Basque
კალიფორნიუმი [kalip'orniumi] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticكاليفورنيوم [kalīfūrniyūm] Arabic
קליפורניום [kalifornium] Hebrew
Kalifornjum, ²Californju Maltese
カリホルニウム [karihoruniumu] Japanese
칼리포르늄 or 칼리포늄 [kalliponyum] Korean
แคลิฟอร์เนียม [khaelifoniam] Thai
鐦 [kai1 / hoi1] Chinese
Other Asiaticകാലിഫോര്ണിയം [kāliphōrṇiyam] Malayalam
கலிபோர்ணியம் [kalipōrņiyam] Tamil
CreoleKalifornimi Sranan Tongo
New namesCalifion Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
First prepared in 1950 by Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg at the Berkeley Laboraty of the University of California by bombardment of Curium with Helium ions.
About the naming of element #98 Glenn Seaborg wrote in 1978 in his biographical article on Stan Thompson (note):
"Naming element 98 was not as straightforward. According to the actinide concept, element 98 is the chemical homolog of the lanthanide element, dysprosium. A little research showed that the name «dysprosium» was based on the Greek word «dysprositos» meaning »hard to get at.« Although element 98 was hard to get at, in the sense that work had been going on toward its synthesis and identification for some three years, there was trouble finding an analogous name.
The following anecdote comes from Glenn T. Seaborg, 1990:
Upon learning about the naming of these elements, the "Talk of the Town" section of the New Yorker magazine had the following to say:
"New atoms are turning up with spectacular, if not downright alarming frequency nowadays, and the University of California at Berkeley, whose scientists have discovered element 97 and 98, has christened them berkelium and californium, respectively. While unarguably suited to their place of birth, these names strike us as indicating a surprising lack of public relations foresight on the part of the university, located, as it is, in a state where publicity has flourished to a degree matched perhaps only by evangelism. California's busy scientists will undoubtedly come up with another atom or two one of these days, and the university might well have anticipated that. Now it has lost forever the chance of immortalizing itself in the atomic tables with some such sequence as universitium (97), offium (98), californium (99), berkelium (100)."The discoverers sent the following reply:
"«Talk of the Town» has missed the point in their comments on naming of the elements 97 and 98. We may have shown lack of confidence but no lack of foresight in naming these elements «berkelium» and «californium.» By using these names first, we have forestalled the appalling possibility that after naming 97 and 98 «univesitium» and «offium,» some New Yorker might follow with the discovery of 99 and 100 and apply the names «newium» and «yorkium.»"The answer from the New Yorker staff was brief:
"We are already at work in our office laboratories on «newium» and «yorkium»! So far we have just the names."
CaliforniaCalifornia is the most populous state (37 million inhabitants) in the United States, and the third largest by area (423,970 km2). It is located on the West Coast of the United States, and is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Its four largest cities are Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, and San Francisco (note).
The word California originally referred to the entire region composed of what is today the state of California, plus all or parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming, and the Mexican peninsula of Baja California.
Several origins have been suggested for the word "California", including Spanish, Latin, South Asian, and Aboriginal American origins. All of these are disputed.
The name California is most commonly believed to have derived from a fictional paradise peopled by Black Amazons and ruled by a Queen Califia. The earliest known application of the name to this island of the Amazons was in the romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, whose earliest surviving edition (but not first edition) is from 1510.
Sabed que a la diestra mano de las Indias existe una isla llamada California muy cerca de un costado del Paraíso Terrenal; y estaba poblada por mujeres negras, sin que existiera allí un hombre, pues vivían a la manera de las amazonas. Eran de bellos y robustos cuerpos, fogoso valor y gran fuerza. Su isla era la más fuerte de todo el mundo, con sus escarpados farallones y sus pétreas costas. Sus armas eran todas de oro y del mismo metal eran los arneses de las bestias salvajes que ellas acostumbraban domar para montarlas, porque en toda la isla no había otro metal que el oroSome suggest that the word California may signify that a place is "hot as an oven", because in Catalan calor means hot and forn means oven. (From the latin roots calida > hot, fornax > oven). Another possible source may be kali forno, an indigenous phrase meaning "high mountains" (note).
The name California is the fifth-oldest surviving European place-name in the U.S. and was applied to what is now the southern tip of Baja California as the island of California by a Spanish expedition led by Diego de Becerra and Fortun Ximenez, who landed there in 1533 at the behest of Hernando Cortes.