Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Gadolinium – Gadolinium – Gadolinium – Gadolínio – ガォリカウム – Гадолиний – 釓
Gadolinium Frisian (West)
Gadoliniu Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicГадолиний [Gadolinij] Bulgarian
Гадаліній [hadalinij] Belarusian
Гадолиниум [Gadolinium] Macedonian
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Russian
Гадолинијум [Gadolinijum] Serbian
Гадоліній [hadolinij] Ukrainian
Gadailiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Gadailiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Gadolinnium Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΓαδολινιο [gadolinio] Greek
.ադոլինիում [(g)adolinium] Armenian
Gadolin, ²Gadoliniumi Albanian
Гадолиний [gadolinij] Ossetian
Гадолиний [Gadilini'] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanগ্যাডোলিনিয়াম [gyāḍoliniẏāma] Bengali
گادولینیم [gadwlynym] Persian
ગૅડોલિનિયમનો [geḍoliniyamano] Gujarati
ग्याडोलिनियम [gyāḍoliniyama] Hindi
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Komi
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Mari
Гадолини [gadolini] Moksha
Гадолини [Gadolini] Chuvash
Гадолиний [gadolinij] Kazakh
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Kyrgyz
Гадолини [gadolini] Mongolian
گادولنىي [gadolniy] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Gadolinioa Basque
გადოლინიუმი [gadoliniumi] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticجدولينيوم [ghādūlīniyūm] Arabic
גדוליניום [gadolinium] Hebrew
Sino-TibetanNga̍t (釓) Hakka
ガォリカウム [gadoriniumu] Japanese
가돌리늄 [gadollinyum] Korean
แกโดลิเนียม [kaelōdiniam] Thai
釓 [ga2 / ga1] Chinese
Other Asiaticഗാഡോലിനിയം [gāḍōliniyam] Malayalam
கடோலினியம்\ [kaţōliṉiyam] Tamil
CreoleGadolinimi Sranan Tongo
New namesGadolion Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
The story of discovery and naming of this element began with Carl Gustav Mosander splitting old yttria into three new earths, yttria proper, erbia, and terbia (see table to the right, and the Rare Earths page). Mosander's erbia was confirmed by Marc Delafontaine in 1878 and renamed terbia, since the name erbia was since 1860 in use for Mosander's Terbium.
Delafontaine's terbia was split by Jean de Marignac in 1880 into an earth to which he gave the provisial name Yα and true terbia (note).
In 1886 François Lecoq de Boisbaudran produced a more pure form of the earth Yα. He separated it from Mosander's didymia, which originated from the mineral samarskite (cf. Samarium). After a correspondece with Marignac, Lecoq announced the Academie that Marignac had chosen to give Yα the name gadolinia. (note). The reason is not given, but clearly is it named after the mineral gadolinite:
Gadolinite is named after the chemist Johan Gadolin, see below.
In a mineral from the Ytterby quarry near Stockholm he discovered in 1794 the element Yttrium (which he named Ytterbium). Yttrium was the first of the so-called rare-earth elements discovered. During the following 90 years a number of new rare-earths elements were discovered, some real, some alleged (for the whole story, see the special Rare earths page).
Johan GadolinJohan Gadolin (Turku 5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist. Gadolin discovered the chemical element yttrium. He was also the founder of Finnish chemistry research. He beca,e professor of chemistry at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1797, as the second holder of that Chair of Chemistry, established in 1761 and first held by Pehr Adrian Gadd (4 April 1727 – 11 August 1797). After the old Royal Academy of Åbo was moved to Helsinki in 1828, this chair became the Chair of Organic Chemistry at the University of Helsinki (note).
The history of the surname is amusing: When the son of a Finnish farm 'Maunula' near Turku entered the learned path, he needed a surname and re-latinized (Maunu = Magnus) his farm name to "Magnulin". Later the versions Megalin, Isolin and Gadolin, from Greek, Finnish and Hebrew, respectively, were considered in the family, and the last one was adopted.
Thus Gadolinium has the distinction of being the only elemental name derived from Hebrew (gadol = "great").
Ytterby, a village in Sweden on the island of Resarö, close to Vaxholm (east of Stockholm) is a deposit of many unusual minerals, containing rare earth and other elements. A Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names and information and illustrations of Ytterby's quarry and a location map is on the Rare Earths page.
Gadolinite Road and Tantalium Road in Ytterby, Summer 2009.
Click here for more photos