Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Neptunium – Neptunium – Neptunium – Neptunio – キシイカウム – Нептуний – 鎿
Neptunium Frisian (West)
Neptuniu Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicНептуний [Neptunij] Bulgarian
Нептуній [neptunij] Belarusian
Нептуниум [Neptunium] Macedonian
Нептуний [Neptunij] Russian
Нептунијум [Neptunijum] Serbian
Нептуній [neptunij] Ukrainian
Neiptiúiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Neiptiùiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Nepçhunium Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΠοσeιδωνιο [poseidōnio] Greek
Նեպտունիում [neptunium] Armenian
Neptun, ²Neptuniumi Albanian
Нептуний [neptunij] Ossetian
Нептуний [Neptuni'] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanনেপচুনিয়াম [nepcuniẏāma] Bengali
نپتونیم [nptwnym] Persian
નેપ્ટુનિયમનો [nepṭuniyamano] Gujarati
नेप्ट्यूनियम [nepṭyūniyama] Hindi
Нептуний [Neptunij] Komi
Нептуний [Neptunij] Mari
Нептуни [neptuni] Moksha
Нептуни [Neptuni] Chuvash
Нептуний [neptûnij] Kazakh
Нептуний [Neptunij] Kyrgyz
Нептуни [neptuni] Mongolian
نېپتونىي [neptoniy] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Neptunioa Basque
ნეპტუნიუმი [neptuniumi] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticنبتونيوم [nibtūniyūm] Arabic
נפטוניום [neptunium] Hebrew
Neptunjum, ²Nettunju Maltese
Sino-TibetanNai (錼) Hakka
キシイカウム [neputsuniumu] Japanese
넵투늄 [nebtunyum] Korean
เนปทูเนียม [nēpthūniam] Thai
鎿 [na2 / na4] Chinese
Other Asiaticനെപ്റ്റ്യൂണിയം [nepṟṟyūṇiyam] Malayalam
நெப்டூனியம் [nepţūṉiyam] Tamil
CreoleNeptunimi Sranan Tongo
New namesNeptone Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
The first element following Uranium is named after the first planet after Uranus: Neptune.
Element #93 has got in 1934-38 the preliminary name Eka-Rhenium by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, who thought they had found traces of several transuranium elements. In December of 1938, Hahn and Strassman found out that these radioactivities were not due to transuranium elements but were due to fission products. According to the Periodic Table of that time, without the Actinide series, element #93 is below Rhenium (#75). According to the present Table, Eka-Rhenium would be #107.
Bohemium & Sequanium (note)
In 1934 the engineer Odolen Koblic (1897-ca.1959), after he processed pitchblende from Jàchymov, in Czechoslovakia, concluded that element 93 was present in it. In summer 1934 Koblic published a short communication in which he stated "All the researches confirm my success in isolating the element of atomic number 93, to whom I give the name Bohemium (Bo) in honour to my fatherland.". Four years later, in 1938, Horia Hulubei (1896-1972) and Yvette Cauchois (1908-1999) distracted from some minerals from Madagascar element 93. They announced it as follows: "Nous aimerions que, si l'existence de cet élément 93 est confirmée, on le nommât Sequanium (Sq), en l'hommage à la vaillante et généreuse civilisation qui a fleuri sur les bordes de la Seine". The Latin name for the Seine is Sequana, thus the element should be named after Cauchois' fatherland - she was born in Paris -, as the element 87 Moldavium (see Francium) was named after Hulubei's fatherland
Ausonium & Hesperium
In 1934, Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) and his co-workers, Edoardo Amaldi (1908-1989), Oscar D'Agostino (1901-1975), Emilio Segrè (1905-1989), and Franco Rasetti (1901-2001), at the University of Rome, bombarded Uranium with neutrons and believed to have synthesized the first transuranium elements. The Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino (1876-1937), announced the discovery of the elements 93 and 94 and he gave prematurely the names and symbols Ausonium, Ao, after Ausonia, the poetic name of Italy, and Hesperium (Esperio), Es (#94), from Hesperius, the Western country (Italy, seen from Greece). The fascist regime of Italy forced him to call one of these elements Littorio (Littorium, after the Italian "littorio", an Imperial Roman symbol re-used during the dictatorship, sometimes this word is associated with the regime itself). Corbino sarcastically replied that it was unlucky for the regime to be associated with an element with half life of few seconds... so the names remained Ausonium and Hesperium (note).
Fermi described this discovery in his Nobel lecture of 1938. Within weeks of the Nobel ceremony, the discovery of nuclear fission was announced. Uranium had been split virtually in half and Fermi's supposed new elements were actually Barium (56) and a mix of Krypton (36) and other elements of similar weight (note) (note2).
NeptunusNeptune (Latin: Neptunus) is the god of water and the sea in Roman mythology, a brother of Jupiter and Pluto. He is analogous with but not identical to the god Poseidon (Ποσeιδων) of Greek mythology (after whom the Greeks named the element). The Roman conception of Neptune owed a great deal to the Etruscan god Nethuns.
Neptune is associated with fresh water, as opposed to Oceanus, god of the world-ocean. Like Poseidon, Neptune was also worshipped by the Romans as a god of horses, under the name "Neptune Equester," patron of horse-racing. The planet Neptune was named after the god, as its deep blue gas clouds gave early astronomers the impression of great oceans (note).
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun in our Solar System and is named for the Roman god of the sea. Discovered on September 23, 1846, Neptune was the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to gravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier.
Shortly after its discovery, Neptune was referred to simply as "the planet exterior to Uranus" or as "Le Verrier's planet". The first suggestion for a name came from Galle, who proposed the name Janus. In England, Challis put forward the name Oceanus.
Claiming the right to name his discovery, Le Verrier quickly proposed the name Neptune for this new planet, while falsely stating that this had been officially approved by the French Bureau des Longitudes. In October, he sought to name the planet Le Verrier, after himself, and he had loyal support in this from the observatory director, François Arago. However, this suggestion met with stiff resistance outside France. French almanacs quickly reintroduced the name Herschel for Uranus, after that planet's discoverer Sir William Herschel, and Leverrier for the new planet. Struve came out in favour of the name Neptune on December 29, 1846, to the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Soon Neptune became the internationally accepted name. The demand for a mythological name seemed to be in keeping with the nomenclature of the other planets, all of which, except for Earth, were named for Greek and Roman mythology