Seven metals known from antiquity in 141 languages - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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Fe Cu Ag Sn Au Hg Pb — Iron, Copper, Silver, Tin, Gold, Mercury, & Lead

Seven metals known from antiquity in 141 languages

At least five of the seven have to be known to be included in this list. On-line dictionaries give for the same word several variants without specification. If no reliable choice could be made, the name is left out.
This page uses UTF-8 codes. Internet Explorer 6.0 and Netscape 7.0 work fine, Internet Explorer 5.x will show most of the codes correctly.
P.S. Gábor Lente of Debrecen university collected the word for Iron in 213 languages (his PDF-file is here).
LANGUAGE
blue names, click for full element list

Fe

Cu

Ag

Sn

Au

Hg

Pb

INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
Latin Ferrum Cuprum Argentum Stannum Aurum Hydrargyrum Plumbum
Germanic Branch
Afrikaans Yster Koper Silwer Tin Goud Kwik Lood
Danish Jern Kobber Sølv Tin Guld Kviksølv Bly
Dutch IJzer Koper Zilver Tin Goud Kwik Lood
English Iron Copper Silver Tin Gold Mercury Lead
Faroese Jarn Kopar Silvur Tin Gull Kviksilvur Blýggj
Frisian (West) Izer Koper Sulver Tin Goud Kwik, Kwiksulver Lead
German Eisen Kupfer Silber Zinn Gold Quecksilber Blei
German (Low) Iesa Koppa Selwa Blajch Golt -- Blie
Icelandic Járn Kopar, ²Eir Silfur Tin Gull Kvikasilfur Blý
Luxembourgish Eisen Koffer Sëlwer Zënn Gold Quecksëlwer Bläi
Norwegian Jern Kobber (Bokmål), Kopar (Nynorsk) Sølv Tinn Gull Kvikksølv Bly
Scottish Airn Copper Siller Tin Gowd Mercury Leid
Swedish Järn Koppar Silver Tenn Guld Kvicksilver Bly
Yiddish Eizn Kuper Silber Zin Gold Kweksilber Schtift, Blei
Italic Branch
Aragonese Fierro Arambre Archén Estaño Oro Mercurio Plomo
Aromanian Heru Halcumã Asime Cãlae Amalãmã Mercuru Plumbu
Asturian Fierro Cobre Plata Estañu Oru Mercuriu Plomu
Catalan Ferro Coure Argent Estany Or Mercuri Plom
Corsican Ferru Ramu Argentu Stagnu Oru Mercuriu Piombu
Extremaduran Jierru Cobri Prata Estañu Oru Mercuriu Promu
French Fer Cuivre Argent Étain Or Mercure Plomb
Friulian Fier Ram Arint Stagn Aur Mercuri Plomp
Galician Ferro Cobre Prata Estaño Ouro Mercurio Chumbo
Italian Ferro Rame Argento Stagno Oro Mercurio Piombo
Jèrriais Rouoge Tchuîvre Argent Blianc-fé Or Vif-argent Pliomb
Lombard Fèr Raam Argeent Staagn Óor Mercüri Piuump
Occitan Fèrre Coire Argent Estam, ²Estanh Aur Mercuri Plomb
Portuguese Ferro Cobre Prata Estanho Ouro Mercúrio Chumbo
Romanian - Moldovan Fier Cupru Argint Staniu, ²Cositor Aur Mercur Plumb
Sardian Férru Ràmene Plàta -- Òro Marcúriu Peúmu
Spanish Hierro Cobre Plata Estaño Oro Mercurio Plomo
Walloon Fier Keuve Årdjint Stin, Sitin Ôr Mierkeure Plonk
Slavic Branch
Belarusian Жалеза
žaleza
Медзь
medz'
Серабро
serabro
Волава
volava
Золата
zolata
Ртуць
rtuc'
Цвінец
cvinec
Bosnian Željezo, ²Gvožđe Bakar Srebro Kalaj Zlato Živa Olovo
Bulgarian Желязо
Željazo
Мед
Med
Сребро
Srebro
Калай
Kalaj
Злато
Zlato
Живак
Živak
Олово
Olovo
Croatian Željezo Bakar Srebro Kositar Zlato Živa Olovo
Czech Železo Měď Stříbro Cín Zlato Rtuť Olovo
Kashubian Żelazło Kòper Strzébro Cëna Złoto Tãź Òłów
Macedonian Железо
Železo
Бакар
Bakar
Сребро
Srebro
Калај
Kalaj
Злато
Zlato
Жива
Živa
Олово
Olovo
Polish Żelazo Miedź Srebro Cyna Złoto Rtęć Ołów
Russian Железо
Železo
Медь
Med'
Серебро
Serebro
Олово
Olovo
Золото
Zoloto
Ртуть
Rtut'
Свинец
Svinec
Saris (Slovakia) Železo Meď Štribro Cín Zlato Žive strebro Olovo
Serbian Гвожће
Gvožđe
Бакар
Bakar
Сребро
Srebro
Калај
Kalaj
Злато
Zlato
Жива
Živa
Олово
Olovo
Slovak Železo Meď Striebro Cín Zlato Ortut Olovo
Slovenian Železo Baker Srebro Kositer Zlato Živo srebro Svinec
Sorbian Železo Kopor Slěbro Cyn Złoto Žiwe slěbro Wołoj
Ukrainian Залізо
zalizo
Мідь
mid'
Срібло
sriblo
Олово
olovo
Золото
zoloto
Ртуть
rtut'
Свинець
svynec'
Baltic Branch
Latvian Dzelzs Varš Sudrabs Alva Zelts Dzīvsudrabs Svins
Lithuanian Geležis Varis Sidabras Alavas Auksas Gyvsidabris Švinas
Samogitian Geležis Varis Sėdabros Alavs Auksos Gīvsėdabris Švins
Celtic Branch
Breton Houarn Kouevr Arc'hant Staen Aour Merkur Plom
Cornish Horn Cober Arhans Sten Owr Arhans Bew Plom
Gaelic (Irish) Iarann Copar Airgead Stán Òr Mearcair Luaidhe
Gaelic (Manx) Yiarn Cobbyr Argid Stainney Airh Mercur Leoaie
Gaelic (Scottish) Iarann (Iarrnaig) Copar Airgead Staoin Òr Mearcair Luaidh
Welsh Haearn Copor Arian Tùn Aur Mercwri Plwm
Other Indo-European Languages in Europe
Albanian Hekur[i] Bakër, ²Bakri Argjent Kalaj, ²Zinni Ar[i] Mërkur[i], ²Zhiva Plumb[i]
Armenian Երկաթ
erkat'
Պղինձ
pghindz
Արծաթ
artsat'
Անագ
anag
Ոսկի
oski
Սնդիկ
sndik
Կապար
kapar
Greek Σιδηρος
sidiros
Χαλκος
chalkos
Αργυρος
argyros
Κασσιτερος
kassiteros
Χρυσος
chrysos
Ύδραργυρος
hydrargyros
Μολυβδος
molyvdos
Indo-Iranian Branch/Iranian
Kurdish Hesin Sifir Zîv Pîl Zêr Zîbeq Sirb, Sirîç
Ossetian Æфсæйнаг
æfsæjnag
Æрхуы
ærhuy
Æвзист
ævzist
Къала
k"ala
Сызгъæрин
syzg"ærin
Джынасу
džynasu
Зды
zdy
Pashto Ahaan Mess Noqrra Qalah Halabi Tellah -- --
Persian آهن
âhan
مس
mes
نقره
nqrh (noqre)
قلع
ql' (qal')
طلا
tla (talâ)
جیوه
jywh (simâb)
سرب
sorb
Tajik Оҳан
Ohan
Мис
Mis
Нуқра
Nukra
Қалъагӣ
Kalagi
Тилло
Tillo
Симоб
Simob
Сурб
Surb
Urdu lohaa, aahan tanba (taañbah) chandi (chaañdi, chaan.di), nuqrah qala^i zar, sona, kañchan, tila paarah, siim aab siisah (seesah)
Indo-Iranian Branch/Indo-Aryan
Bengali আয়রন
āẏarana
কপার
kapāra
রূপা
rūpā
টিন
ṭina
গোল্ড
golḍ
পারদ (মৌল)
pārd (maula)
লেড
leḍ
Gujarati લોખંડ
lokha'ḍa
તાંબુ
tā'bu
ચાંદી
cā'dī
ટિનનો
ṭinano
સોનું
sonu'
મર્ક્યુરી
markyurī
સીસુંનો
sīsu'no
Hindi लॊहा
lohā
tā.nbā chā.ndī ţina sonā, kañchana, suvarņa pArA sīsā rā.ngā
Kamviri cam'a dâr'ü âr'ü tâlc'ama s'un -- t'uC
Nepali फmमाम
phalam
तामा
tama
चाbी
candi
टिन
tin
सन
sun
पारो
paro
सीसा
sisa
Pali aya, kāļāyasa tamba, tambaloha rajata vańga-tipu suvaņņa, kanaka gandhaka tipu
Romani Trast, Srasta, Saster Charkum, Harkuma, Sónnasáster Rup, Rap, Rupper Cinos Somnakaj, Somnak, Sónnakai -- Olovos
Sanskrit अयस
ayas
आरकूटा
ārakūtā
रजत
rajata
--
trapu

rukma

pārata
सीस
sīsa
FINNO-UGRIC LANGUAGES
Estonian Raud Vask Hõbe Tina Kuld Elavhõbe Plii
Finnish Rauta Kupari Hopea Tina Kulta Elohopea Lyijy
Hungarian Vas Réz Ezüst ón Arany Higany ólom
Karelian Rauta Vaski Hobju, Hopiehini Tina Kulda Elohobju, Artuga Pochintina
Komi Кӧрт
kört
Ыргӧн
yrgön
Эзысь
èzys'
Озысь
ozys'
Зарни
zarin
Тюрк
tyurk
Ширысь
širys'
Mari Кӱртньӧ
Kürtn'ö
Вӱргене
Vürgene
Ший
Šij
Вулно
Vulno
Шӧртньӧ
Šörtn'ö
Майдар
Majdar
Вӱдвулно
Vüdvulno
Moksha Кишни, Кшни
kishni, kshni
Серае, Сере
serae, sere
Сия
sija
Валдакиви, Равжа киви
valdakivi, ravzha kivi
Сирнае, Зрня
sirnae, zrnja
Аериксия
aeriksija
Киви
kivi
Nenets (Forest) Wyesya Nyalhama Nyeni Kúpt°q Xilhnyi -- Kúpt°q
Nenets (Tundra) Yesya Nyarawa Nyeney° Xúbt°q ngolawa Solot°, Solotey° -- Xúbt°q
Sami Ruovdi Veaiki Silba Datni Golli Eallisilba Ladju
Võro Raud Vask Hõpõ Tina Kuld Ellävhõpõ Plii
ALTAIC LANGUAGES
Azerbaijani Dəmir Mis Gümüş Qalay Qızıl Civə Qurğuşun
Chuvash Тимĕр
Timĕr
Пăхăр
Păhăr
Кĕмĕл
Kĕmĕl
Тăхлан
Tăhlan
Ылтăн
Yltăn
Ртуть
Rtut'
Хура тăхлан
Hura Tăhlan
Kazakh Темір
temir
Мыс
mys
Күміс
kümis
Къалайы
k"alajy
Алтын
altyn
Сынап
synap
Къоргъасын
k"org"asyn
Khakas Timîr Çis Kümüs Ax xorghamjyl Altïn Rtut' Xara xorghamjyl
Khakas (Sagay) Timîr Çis Müñün Ax xorghajyl Altïn Rtut' Xara xorghajyl
Kyrgyz Темир
Temir
Жез
Žez
Кумуш
Kumuš
-- Алтын
Altyn
Сымап
Symap
--
Mongolian Төмөр
tömör
Зэс
zès
Мөнгө
möngö
Цагаан тугалга
cagaan tugalga
Алт
alt
Мөнгөн ус
möngön us
Хар тугалга
har tugalga
Turkish Demir Bakır Gümüş Kalay Altın Civa Kurşun
Turkmen Ütüklemek, Demir Mis Kümüs, Kümüsemek Qalaÿy Altyn, Tylla Simap Qurşun
Uyghur تۆمۈر
tömür
مىس
mis
كۈمۈش
kümüş
قەلەي
qäläy
ئالتۇن
'altun
مېركۇرىي
merkuriy
قوغۇشۇن
qoğuşun
Uzbek Temir Mis Kumush Qalay Oltin Simob Qoʻrgʻoshin
NORTH CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES
Chechen Ечиг
eçig
ЦIаста
ċasta
Дети
deti
-- Деши
deşi
ginsu Даш
daş
Ingush Аьшк
a'ŝk
ЦIаста
chasta
Дотув
dotuv
ГIаьли
gha'li
Дошув
doŝuv
-- Даш
daŝ
OTHER LANGUAGES OF EUROPE
Basque Burdina Kobrea Zilarra Eztainua Urrea Merkurioa Beruna
Georgian რკინა
rkina
სპილენძი
spilenżi
ვერცხლი
verc'xli
კალა
kala
ოქრო
ok'ro
ვერცხლის წყალი
verc'xlis cqali
ტყვია
tqvia
AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES
Arabic حديد
Hadīd
نحاس
nuHās
فضة
fiDDah
قصدير
qaSdīr
ذهب
dhahab
زئبق
zi'baq, zā'ūq
رصاص
raSāS
Hebrew ברזל
barzel
נחושת
nahoshet
כסף
kesef
בדיל
bdil
זהב
zahav
כספית
kaspit
עופרת
oferet
Maltese Ħadid Ram, ²Ramm Fidda Landa, ²Stann Deheb Merkurju Ċomb
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES
Chinese
tie3 / tit8

tong2 / tung4

yin2 / ngan4

xi2 / sik8

jin1 / gam1

gong3 / hung3

qian1 / yuen4
Hakka Thiet Thùng Ngiùn Siak Kîm Kúng (汞) Yèn (鉛)
Japanese
tetsu

dou

gin
スズ
suzu

kin
水銀
suigin

namari
Korean
ceol
구리
guri

eun
주석
juseog

geum
수은
su'eun

nab
Southern Min Thih Tâng Gîn Siah Kim -- Iân
Thai เหล็ก
lek
ทองแดง
thongdaeng
เงิน
ngoen
ดีบุก
dībuk
ทองคำ
thongkam
ปรอท
parot
ตะกั่ว
takua
Tibetan lcags zangs dngul dkar g.ya', gsha' dkar gser khams chen po kyu ru
Vietnamese Sắt Đồng Bạc Thiếc Vàng Thuỷ ngân Chì
MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES
Cebuano Puthaw Kobre Plata Estanyo Bulawan Merkuryo Plomo
Hawaiian Hao, Papa'a hao -- Kala ke'oke'o Keleawe, Pila Kula -- Kepau
Indonesian Besi Tembaga Perak Timah Emas Raksa Timbal
Malay Besi Tembaga Perak Timah Aurum, Emas Raksa, ²Merkuri Plumbum, ²Timbal
Maori Rino Konukura, Kapa† Kawata, Hiriwa† Tīni Koura Konuoi, Mekuri† Konumatã, Matā†
Rotuman 'ia 1 Kapa 1 Siliva Tini (?) Koro 2 -- Lete 2
Tagalog Plansa, Puthaw Tanso Pilak Lata (Ka)Bulawan Merkuryo Akayin
Tongan Uokamea Kopa Siliva Kapa Koula -- --
OTHER ASIATIC LANGUAGES
Malayalam ഇരുമ്പ്
irump
ചെമ്പ്
cemp
വെള്ളി
veḷḷi
വെളുത്തീയം
veḷuttīyam
സ്വര്‍ണം
svarṇam
രസം (മൂലകം)
rasam (mūlakam)
കറുത്തീയം
kṟuttīyam
Tamil இரும்பு
irumpu
செப்பு
ceppu
வெள்ளி
veļļi
தகரம்
takaram
பொன்
poṉ
பாதரசம் (தனிமம்)
pātaracam (taṉimam)
ஈயம்
īyam
AFRICAN LANGUAGES
Hausa - Boko -- Tagùllaa - Tagulla Azùrfaa - Azurfa Kùzà, Darmàà - Kuza, Darma Gwâl - Gwal Zaibàà - Zaiba Darmàà - Darma
Lingála Ebendé Mbengi Sɛ́ngi Etani Wólo Mekuli Kubéle
Sesotho Tshepe Koporo Silivera Thene Gauta Mekhuri Loto
Swahili Feri, Chuma Kupri, ²Nahasi Agenti Stani, ²Bati Auri, Dhahabu Hidrajiri, ²Zaibaki Plumbi, ²Risasi
Wolof Weñ Pürüm Xaalis Beteex Wurus -- Beteex
Zarma (Niger) Guuru Guru ciray Nzarfu -- Ura, Wura -- Badile
Zuku Insimbi Ikhopha Isiliva Ithini Igolide Isigidi, Imercury Umthofu
NORTH-AMERICAN LANGUAGES
Anishinaabe (Minn.) Biiwaabik Miskwaabik Waabishki-zhooniyaa -- Ozaawaa-zhooniyaa -- Ashkikomaan
Coushatta (Ala.) Ochana Ochanalaana Toknaawa -- Toknaawalaana (gold coin) -- Ŀaki
Inuktikut Savirajak Kanngussak Qakulliq -- Kannuqa Aqirruujaq Uukturaut ittaqqutilik
Nahuatl Tlīltic tepoztli Chīchīltic tepoztli Iztāc teōcuitlatl Amochitl Cōztic teōcuitlatl Yōliamochitl Temētztli
Seri (Mexico) Enim Enim cheel Tom cooxp -- Enim cmasol -- Enm haxáaza cmotjö
SOUTH-AMERICAN LANGUAGES
Quecha Khillay Anta Qullqi q'illay Chayanta Quri Yaku qullqi, ²Puriq qullqi Titi, ²Waychi, ³Antaki
CREOLE LANGUAGES
Sranan Tongo Isri Kupru Srivru Ten Gowtu Kwiki Loto
Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea) Ain -- Silva Tin Gol -- Bol
ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES
Esperanto Fero Kupro Argxento Stano Oro Hidrargo Plumbo
Euransian Âhanü Meysü Noqrü Kalayü Zohvü Merkorü Sarbü
Interlingua Ferro Cupro Argento Stanno Auro Mercurio Plumbo
Lojban Tirse Tunka Rijno Tinci Solji Margu Cnisa
Novial Fere Kupre Argjente Stane Ore -- Plumbe
© Peter van der Krogt