Table of contents
THE CUSTODIA OF GENOA.-Columbus presented Nicolo Oderigo with two complete sets of authenticated copies of his titles, to be placed for safe-keeping by him in the Bank of Genoa. These documents, together with three autograph letters of Columbus, were presented to the city of Genoa, by Laurentio Oderigo, a descendant of Nicolo Oderigo, and were accepted by a decree, dated January 10th, 1670. They were stolen during the political troubles of 1797, one passing into the possession of Count Cambiaso, the other being taken to Paris. The Government of Genoa secured the return of the papers, and after their recovery they were deposited in the archives of Genoa.
The Common Council ordered the erection of a "Custodia" for the purpose of the safety of these priceless documents, and Carlo Barabino, the City Architect, was entrusted with the execution of the work. The "Custodia" consists of a truncated column, in the upper part of which is a receptacle, closed by a metallic plate in which are deposited the precious relics, which are seldom exhibited to the public, and photographs of which are on view. The column is surmounted by a bust of Columbus; it is about eight feet [2.4 meter] in height and stands on a square die. It bears the following inscription:
"QUÆ. HEIC. SUNT. MEMBRANAS. EPISTOLAS. Q. EXPENDITO. HIS. PATRIAM. IPSE. NEMPE. SUAM. COLUMBUS. APERIT. EN. QUID. MICHI. CREDITUM. THESAURI. SIET. DECR. DECURIONUM. GENUENS. M.DCCCXXI."
The bust is the work of the sculptor Peschiera; it is four feet [1.2 meter] in height and is remarkable as a work of art, the artist having followed the descriptions of the Admiral, with the exception of the mouth and eyebrows, which are somewhat different. (Cut No. 50)
THE GENOA STATUE. -At No. 19 Via Carlo Alberto, near the Piazza [page 80] Darsena, Genoa, Italy, a small statue of Columbus stands in a niche, with the following inscription:
"DISSI, VOLLI, CREDI, ECCO UN SECONDO
SORGER NUOVO, DALL' ONDE IGNOTO MONDO."
Another statue of Columbus has been erected in the Red Palace at Genoa, which represents him standing on the deck of the Santa Maria. behind a priest [page 81] bearing a cross. The pedestal is ornamented by prows of caravels, and on each side are emblematic figures representing Discovery and Industry.
THE GENIUS OF COLUMBUS.-STATUE BY VIGNOLO. -This splendid work, which is of heroic size, is one of the most beautiful ornaments of the Royal Palace at Genoa.
STATUE IN THE GALLERY VITTORIO EMANUELE, MILAN.-There are in the Gallery Vittorio Emanuele, Milan, twenty-four statues of the most distinguished Italians. On the right hand side of the gallery of exit, there is a statue of Columbus which as a work of art is excellent, but as to resemblance is absolutely worthless, and from descriptions I have read of it and information imparted to me by a most competent person, it is purely imaginary.
PAVIA BUST.-There is also in the University of Pavia, which it is pretended was the Alma Mater of Columbus, a beautiful colossal marble bust of the Discoverer. The hair is arranged in a fashion that did not prevail at the time of Columbus; the lineaments of the face are, however, in accordance with the Capriolo and Cancellieri engravings. It is truly admirable as a work of art. (Cut No. 51)
CAPITOLINE MUSEUM.-In the Capitoline Museum at Rome, there is a bust of Columbus of great artistic merit but of no historical value, as it is entirely imaginary. There is a reproduction of this bust in the Hall of the Historical Society of New York.
STATUE BY VINCENZO VELA. COLUMBUS IN AMERICA.-This colossal marble group was exhibited at the Paris Exposition in 1867. It represents the Admiral, attired in a somewhat quaint afid cumbersome dress, in the act of extending his hand over a young Indian maiden typifying America. I have read that it is a beautiful work of art, but historically worthless. [According to p. 109-110 this statue was later erected in Colon, Panama, PvdK]
REVELLI STATUE.-This group is nothing more than a duplicate of that exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1867, and which is elsewhere described as having been erected at Lima; it is very well known, as there is a beautiful engraving of it by Desmaison, which has had a wide circulation. I do not know the present site of the statue, but it was sold at a high price. [According to p. 113-115 this statue was indeed erected in Lima, Peru, PvdK]
THE PARIS STATUE -There is in the Champs Elysées, at Paris, a statue by Cordier, which is much admired for its artistic merit. I will not describe it because it is a duplicate of the statue, by the same artist, surmounting the monument in the capital of the Republic of Mexico. [This statue is not a duplicate, but it is identical with the Mexico statue, which was first for a short time exhibited in Paris, PvdK].
SEVILLE.-In the court-yard of the old Exchange or Casa de Contratacion de las Indias, at Seville, where the Archives of the Indies are deposited, a small marble statue of Columbus has been erected. Its artistic merit is not great, and its value as a portrait even less.
CARTUJA OF SEVILLE.-The Dowager Marchioness of Pickman, has erected in the old building of the Cartuja, which is at present the most celebrated manufactory of ceramics in Spain, a monument in memory of Columbus, over the spot where his remains were once interred. The base of this monument is of encaustic tiles manufactured on the spot. From it rises a pedestal of Carrara marble surmounted by a colossal statue of the Admiral. He is represented with his right hand resting on a globe, placed on a column, and holding a scroll of parchment in his left hand. On the front of the monument is a memorial slab with the following inscription:
A - CRISTÓBAL COLÓN - EN MEMORIA DE - HABER ESTADO DEPOSITADAS - SUS CENIZAS DESDE EL AÑO MDXIII A MDXXXVI EN LA IGLESIA DE ESTA - CARTUJA-DE-SANTA MARIA-DE LAS CUEVAS - LA MARQUESA VIUDA DE PICKMAN - ERIGIO ESTE MONUMENTO - EN MDCCCLXXXVII. The interpretation of which is:
TO CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, IN MEMORY OF HIS REMAINS HAVING BEEN DEPOSITED HERE FROM THE YEAR MDXIII TO MDXXXVI IN THE CHURCH OF THIS CARTUJA OP SANTA MARIA, THIS MONUMENT HAS BEEN ERECTED BY THE DOWAGER MARCHIONESS OF PICKMAN IN MDCCCLXXXVII.
MONUMENT AT SALAMANCA.-At Valcuerbo, near Salamanca, Columbus was entertained by Diego de Deza, prior of the great Dominican convent of San Esteban, while the Junta of Spanish ecclesiastics considered his projects. The [page 83] small farm-house still stands at a distance of about three miles west of Salamanca, and there is a tradition among the peasants that on the crest of a small hill in the vicinity of the house, now called, "Teso de Colon," (Columbus' Peak), Columbus used to confer with his advisers or pass the time in solitary meditation. A monument has been erected by the present owner, Don Martin de Solís. It consists of a stone pyramid surmounted by a globe.
MONUMENT AT GRANADA.-The Spanish government, with the view of commemorating the celebration of the Columbus Centennial, ordered the erection of a monument at Granada, in honor of Isabella and Columbus, thus uniting two of the most important events in the history of Spain: the conquest of Granada which ended the rule of the Moors in the Peninsula, and the discovery of America. The artist selected to design and erect this splendid monument was the young but famous sculptor, Mariano Benlliure, a native of Valencia, and whose works have gained for him a great reputation in the art world.
The monument consists of three parts: the base, the pedestal, and the group which crowns it. The base is of marble from the quarries of Sierra Elvira, near Granada, and consists of five wide low steps. On the center of this base stands the pedestal, which is a massive, rectangular structure, rich and severe in character, and truly monumental. Its corners are formed by four plain pilasters, with a capital in the style of the Renaissance. On the sides of the pedestal are two large bass-reliefs, one of which represents a battle at Velez Malaga, and the other the signing of the agreement between Columbus and the Catholic Kings. The names of prominent persons celebrated in Arms, Literature or the Church, attached to the court of the Catholic Kings, are inscribed all over the pedestal. In the front face are two allegorical figures representing Granada and America, in the act of raising a tapestry covering the plinth, on which are inscribed January 2, 1492, the date of the surrender of Granada, and October 12, 1492, the date of the discovery of America, and beneath this are the names of the principal supporters of Columbus, Fray Juan Pérez, Cardinal Mendoza, Alonso de Quintanilla, Fray Hernando de Talavera, the Marchioness of Moya and Luis de Santángel.
The tapestry which falls over the plinth, reaches to the top of the pedestal, on which is the Queen seated on a magnificent Gothic chair, listening to the plans of Columbus who is standing in front of her. The ornamentation of the sculptures.on the plinth and the upper part of the monument give it a beautiful appearance and the figures in the bass-reliefs are magnificently executed. The attire of the figures of Columbus and Isabella are faithfully copied from monuments and descriptions. According to native critics, the whole work is an honor to modern Spanish art.
MONUMENT AT HUELVA.-From The Centenario, an illustrated review published in Madrid, I take. the following details regarding the monument recently erected at Huelva. It consists of three parts: a base, nineteen feet [5.7 meter] in height, terminating in a spacious platform, to which access is obtained by three wellproportioned perrons, and from, which a magnificent view is had of the Bar of Saltes, Huelva, Palos, Mogner and the sea. On this platform is erected a hexagonal pedestal seventy-three feet [22 meter] in height, ornamented by the prows of the three caravels; on this pedestal again stands a column, eighty-two feet [25 meter] in height, in the interior of which there is a winding staircase by means of which visitors can ascend to a gallery on a level with the vessels' prows, and have a splendid view of the surrounding country. The capital of the column is a group of savages which upholds it. The cornice is a representation of the diadem of the Catholic Kings, above which is a globe fifty feet [15 meter] in diameter, with a large cross as a finial. On the equator of this globe are inscribed the names of Columbus and Isabella, and on the lower part of the column are the names of all the persons who cooperated in the accomplishment of the undertaking either by their personal help or influence. Among them. will be the names of all the members of the crews of the three caravels which have been handed down to posterity.
The monument is of white marble two hundred and five feet [62.5 meter] in height, and was designed by Ricardo Velasquez; the construction has been carried on under the supervision by the able architect, Hernandez Rubio. It stands in the center of a circular plaza, four hundred and eighty-five feet [148 meter] in diameter and two hundred and seven feet [63 meter] above the level of the sea, profusely ornamented with American plants. It was dedicated on August 3rd, 1892. (Cut No. 52.)
MONUMENT AT BARCELONA.-This is the noblest monument yet erected to the memory of Columbus, and just as that at Genoa, is really deserving of something more than a passing notice.
Barcelona is the place where the Catholic Kings received Columbus on his return from his first voyage, but nobody had ever thought of erecting a memorial to him there, until 1856, when a public-spirited Catalonian, Antonio Fajas, proposed to organize a general subscription for raising the funds required to defray the cost of the monument.
The projector was neither an artist nor even an educated man; he was simply a shoemaker, who having found that his trade was not lucrative enough for his ambition, enlisted in the army, and was sent to Cuba; after having obtained his discharge, he embarked in business and made a great fortune, which soon after his return to Barcelona, he lost in a banking venture; he [page 86] left his country once more and commenced to work anew. He made another fortune and then returned to Barcelona, where he settled for good, always taking a lively interest in any scheme which he considered likely to further the glory and beauty of his native city.
He had always been an enthusiastic admirer of Columbus and in 1856, he proposed to the Municipal Council of his city, the erection of a great memorial to the Discoverer, to be entirely the work of Catalonian artists; but in consequence of political troubles very little attention was paid to his project. At last, in 1872, he found an enthusiastic supporter in the Mayor of the city, Rius y Taulet. Unforeseen obstacles prevented the carrying out of the work, notwithstanding a competition had been opened and proposals submitted. In 1881, Mr. Rius y Taulet was again elected Mayor of Barcelona, and urged by Fajas, he took the project in hand and opened a public subscription to defray the expenses. The sum of $200,000 was required and the greater part of it was raised in four years; the deficit, $24, 000, was covered by the Provincial Deputation of Barcelona, which contributed $14,000, and by the Municipality of the same city, which donated $10,000.
Spanish artists exclusively, were invited to compete. Twenty-eight artists presented their designs and reports and the first prize was awarded to Mr. Cayetano Buigas Monrabá, a distinguished Catalonian architect, who was charged with the direction of the work. The corner-stone was laid on Sept. 28th, 1882. Six years were required for the completion of the work, which was dedicated with great solemnity and in the presence of an immense concourse of people on the first day of June, 1888. (Cut No. 53.)
Seven Spanish and forty-nine foreign men-of-war, belonging to the American, Austrian, British, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Russian Navies participated in the dedication of this monument. The Queen-Regent of Spain with the royal family and a large number of prominent citizens' assisted at the ceremonies.
Buigas called to his aid a galaxy of distinguished Catalonlan artists, and apportioned the different parts of the work among them, using the greatest discretion in the selection of the men who were to realize his conceptions.
In giving a description of this truly majestic monument, I will divide it into five parts:
1. The Substructure or Stylobate; 2. The Base; 3. The Pedestal; 4. The Column; 5. The Statue.
The stylobate is in the form of a circle sixty-six feet [20 meter] in diameter, and is built of freestone; it is about four feet [1.2 meter] above the level of the Square; it is broken by four staircases twenty feet [6 meter] wide, each flanked by two lions, one [page 88] standing and one couchant. These eight magnificent and gigantic lions are cast in bronze by the eminent master Vallmitjana, a son and able disciple of Venancio Vallmitjana, the sculptor of the beautiful statue of "Columbus in Chains."
2. The Base.-On this stylobate rises the base in the form of a truncated cone. It is about thirteen feet [4 meter] high by fifty-nine feet [18 meter] in diameter at the foot. It is built of enormous ashlers from the quarries of Monjuich. Embedded in its sides there are eight bronze high reliefs representing the most important incidents in the career of the Admiral:
MADRID. STATUE BY SAN MARTIN.-In the Court of the Colonial Office (Ministerio de Ultramar), at Madrid, a colossal statue of Columbus has been erected. It is the work of the famous Spanish sculptor José San Martin, a disciple of Ponciano Ponzáno, and is one of the most beautiful statues of Columbus.
Added to its great artistic merit is the closeness with which the descriptions of Columbus have been followed, and the accuracy of the details of the dress. Columbus is represented in the costume of Admiral of the Indies, carrying the standard of Castile; behind him is a globe. The features of the statue are very much like the portrait at the Naval Museum, and reproductions have frequently been made in reduced size for different localities in Spain and Spanish America. (See Cut No. 55.) [The present location is unknown, PvdK]
NAVAL MUSEUM. MADRID.-The second saloon of the Naval Museum at Madrid bears the name of Sala de Colon (Columbus Hall), a large bust of the Admiral is its principal ornament, but according to what I have been told, it is a work of very indifferent merit, from a historical point of view, as it is entirely imaginary, though as a work, of art it is very effective. [The bust is at present not in the Naval Museum, PvdK]
THE MONUMENT IN MADRID.-I translate from The Centenario of Madrid, the following description of the monument to the Discoverer, erected there:
"In commemoration of so conspicuous an event as the marriage of, the never-to-be-forgotten King Alphonso XII., to Maria Christina, the present Queen-Regent of Spain, the Spanish nobility determined to start a subscription for the purpose of erecting a monument at this Court, to the glorious discoverer of the New World. In the competition opened for the purpose of carrying out this project, the famous artist Arturo Mélida, submitted a design which strongly attracted public attention, on account of the originality of the conception, as he proposed that the memorial should assume the form of a vessel. [page 94] No award having been made in the first competition, a second was opened in which the conditions of the work were set forth very explicitly, and the specifications under which the monument should be constructed, and exacting among some others as an essential one, that it should consist of a pillar with a base. In this second competition, Mr. Mélida again took part, and to him was awarded the prize, namely: the execution of the work.
"The material of the monument is Novelda stone, and it stands in the center of a square named after the immortal Genoese. It is composed of two parts: a square base with an octagonal pillar, which is surmounted by a statue of Italian marble, one of the masterpieces of the famous sculptor, Jeronimo Suñol. The base is enriched with allegories, detached statues and other details, which are in the best artistic taste.
"The high-reliefs which adorn the four faces are of excellent design, and of exquisite workmanship. The one in the front represents the famous vessel, the Santa Maria; on the deck of the historical ship is seen a hemisphere with the new continent, and a band on which is inscribed in monachal characters, the motto: 'POR CASTILLA, Y POR LEON, NUEVO MUNDO HALLO COLON.' The high-relief on the north side shows the image of Our Lady of the Pillar, with the ever memorable date of the discovery of America, 12 de Octubre de 1492, at her feet, and the names of the intrepid Spaniards who followed Columbus in his marvellous enterprise. On the eastern face is depicted the touching scene of the offer of her jewels made by Isabella I., for the purpose of raising funds for the forsaken and daring navigator; while on the western one is a representation of the conference at which Columbus revealed his adventurous plans to Father Deza.
"Four heralds or kings-at-arms, of life size, and wearing emblazoned dalmaties, stand at the angles of the base, on addorsed pillars, under elegant canopies consisting of small groined vaults, carved in. the form of polygonal capitals, surrounded by festooned, pendant arches, and crowned by pinnacles. Above this, is a circular arcade, between the columns of which are seen four coats of arms of Spain, supported by the eagle of St. John the Evangelist; above this part, rises a pillar ornamented by beautiful mouldings on which is the figure of Columbus, standing in a stately attitude, holding the standard of Castile in his right hand. The monument is surrounded by an iron railing and stands in the center of a garden.
"The style of this remarkable work is Gothie of the third period, better known as the florid or flamboyant. This name originated from the filling of the open spaces with fanciful traceries, imitating the fibres of leaves with small interlaced columns and arches forming undulations. The style cannot be more [page 95] characteristic, or recall to us more perfectly, the taste which prevailed at the time of the Catholic Kings.
"The entire monument, with the exception of the statue, which is the work of Mr. Suñol, is the original design of Mr. Mélida, which in this case as on every former occasion, when his artistic talent has been put to the test, has added a fresh leaf to his glorions crown, especially showing his profound knowledge, and endorsing the good judgment of those who entrusted him. with the direction of the work of restoration in San Juan de los Reyes."
I will further add that the statue is worthy of more than such a passing notice. It represents the Admiral-as has already been stated-standing beside a capstan on which there is a globe, and holding the standard of Castile in his right hand, while he extends the left, and raises his head as if in the act of thanking Heaven for his glorious victory.
The details of the statue are excellent; the features being in exact accordance with the historical descriptions, and appear to have been taken from the picture in the Naval Museum at Madrid. The material of the statue is white Carrara marble, and it is 14 feet [4.3 meter] in height. I will state in conclusion that according to the photograph by Laurent, in my possession, the coat of arms of Columbus is beneath the globe, and the inscription reads: "A CASTILLA Y A LEÓN, NUEVO MUNDO DIÓ COLON," instead of "POR CASTILLA Y POR LEÓN, NUEVO MUNDO HALLÓ COLON," as is stated in the article I have translated.
In 1891, an expedition was sent out by the Chicago Herald to find the landing-place of Columbus. After very careful investigation and inquiry, the party erected a monument fifteen feet [4.5 meter] high on Watling's Island, which bears the following inscription:
ON THIS SPOT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS FIRST SET FOOT ON
THE SOIL OF THE NEW WORLD.
ERECTED BY THE CHICAGO HERALD
JUNE 15, 1891.
COLUMBUS, 1492.It was a gift to the colony, bv Sir James Carmichael Smyth, Governor of the Bahamas from 1829-1833, was modeled in London in 1831, is of metal painted white, and was erected in May, 1832. According to the opinion of some friends who have seen it, it has neither artistic nor historie value.
STATUE IN THE TEMPLETE.-In the city of Havana, there is a small, tasteful building erected in commemoration of the first mass said in Havana, in 1517; this building is known as the Templete. There is in it a marble bust of the Admiral, which occupies a small niche. It is the gift of the famous and venerated Bishop, José Diaz Espada y Landa. The bust was placed there in 1828, but I have not been able to learn the name of the artist, and I have not [page 98] taken great interest in it. It has absolutely no merit either artistic or historie. It is surrounded by an iron railing and looks as is generally remarked in Havana, as if the Admiral were there in prison.
VALLMITJANA. STATUE OF COLUMBUS IN CHAINs. HAVANA, SOCIEDAD ECONOMICA.-This beautiful work, by the most distingnished of modern Spanish sculptors, is only a model in clay. It was bought by the patriotic Cuban Deputy, Gabriel Millet, and presented by him to the Sociedad Economica of Havana, a Society which has always been foremost in all matters tending to promote the welfare and progress of the Island of Cuba. (Cut 58.)
It represents Columbus as a man of sixty years of age; the head is superb in sentiment and expression. He is seated on a coil of rope on the deck of the ship, which is carrying him to Spain in chains, over that same Sea of Darkness, which he had unveiled. He reclines against a capstan, in an attitude which shows his fetters. Notwithstanding the fact that capstans of that form were not known at the time, the slight anachronism only adds to the general beautiful effect of the work. His features agree with the description left by his contemporaries. The expression of the face is a sublime combination of suffering, melancholy and resignation. A profound knowledge of anatomy is shown in the details of the emaciated face and hands.. The inscription on the base is as follows:
POR EL ESCULTOR ESPAÑOL, D. V. VALLMITJANA,
DONADO A LA REAL SOCIEDAD ECONÓMICA DE LA HABANA,
POR DON GABRIEL MILLET,
HAVANA MONUMENT.-A monument in the memory of Columbus is being erected at Havana, Cuba. [In 1905 the monument was erected in Valladolid, PvdK] The most striking feature of which is a terrestrial globe encireled by a band, on which are the words, "Non plus ultra," which, as is well known, was the motto of Spain at the time of the discovery. Beneath this globe is a lion tearing off the three first letters with a blow of his paw, representing the negative idea, showing by this allegory that there is a "Plus ultra," as evideneed by the discovery of a New World. (Cut No. 59.)
The globe stands on a truncated pyramid, resting on a quadrangular base, flanked by four statues standing at the four salient sides. These statues represent Courage, Study, History and Navigation. To this last figure, a child is presenting a compass. On each of the panels is a bass-relief representing a notable event in the history of the discovery.
The first of these bass-reliefs shows the cell of Father Juan Perez in the Convent of the Rábida, in which Columbus is depieted as explaining his plans [page 100] to the Franciscan Prior, to Garci Fernandez and to other monks of the Convent. The second represents the departure of Columbus; he stands in the center, receiving the benediction of the friendly Prior. The third is a graphic picture of the landing at San Salvador, the Admiral standing in the center, his followers kneeling at his feet, kissing his hands and the hem of his robe, and asking his pardon; the fourth is the reception of Columbus at Barcelona by the Catholic Kings, in which Ferdinand is rising to receive the Admiral. and his suite, two members of which are Indians, male and female. The four bass- [page 101] reliefs are of beautiful design. On the side opposite to that on which the lion is shown tearing off the word "non," an eagle with open wings displays the escutcheon of the Spanish nation, then in use.
On another of the sides of the pyramid, is an artistic medallion with the busts of the Catholic Kings resting on one, of the wings of the eagle, and on the opposite side is a medallion representing the sail of a ship, with the stand ard of the Holy Virgin and Child.
Another nautical design is on the top of the monument showing a barge battered by the winds and waves, surmounting the globe. On this barge [page 102] stands Faith, gulding Christopher Columbus, as a symbol that the New World has been discovered under the ægis of the Cross.
The sculptor, Antonio Susillo, though still a young man, is ene of the most famous Spanish artists. His model obtained the first prize in the competition for the design for this monument, and he will receive $100,000 for building it in accordance with his plans. It is 60 feet [18.3 meter] high and is now in course of construction. It will be erected in a most beautiful site in the Capital of Cuba, in the Park opposite the Tacon Theatre.
All these statues and bass-reliefs will be of bronze; the monument will be fifty-two and a half feet [16 meter] in height; the group en the top will be twenty-three feet [7 meter]; the lion twelve feet [3.7 meter], the eagle twelve feet [3.7 meter]; the four bass-reliefs ten feet [3 meter] in length, and the four statues which are all seated, will be ten feet [3 meter] each in height.
THE NEW SEPULCHRE OF COLUMBUS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF HAVANA.
The monument will be of bronze and marble; the base is composed of enormous ashlers of gray marble from the quarries of Alconera, on which will be a plinth of black Belgian marble, consisting of five pieces.
Four heralds dressed in full court mourning upbear the sarcophagus; they bear respectively the arms of, Castile, Léon, Aragon, and Navarre, the four nations which united under the rule of Ferdinand and Isabella, constituted the kingdom of Spain.
The sarcophagus is of bronze, ornamented with enamelled metallie plates, and in it will be placed the pretended remains of Columbus now at Havana.
THE NEW SEPULCHRE OF COLUMBUS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF HAVANA.-This is in actual course of construction in Spain. [In 1899 the mausoleum was placed in the catherdral of Sevilla, PvdK] The originator of the project and director of the werk is Mr. Arthur Mélida, a very celebrated Spanish sculptor. (Cut No. 60.)
THE HAVANA HIGH-RELIEF.-A large marble slab on the right hand side of the Presbytery in the Cathedral at Havana, marks the resting place of the supposed remains of Columbus, brought there on board of the ship of the line, the "San Lorenzo," on the 15th of February, 1796, by Gen. Aristizaval.
It represents Columbus in armor with a ruff and holding a globe. It strongly resembles the Cladera and Muñoz pictures, and as stated elsewhere in this work is almost an exact copy of the Vasquez engraving (q. v.) (Cut No. 61.)
The execution of the high-relief is beautiful. It is a half-length in an oval frame; en the upper part is a garland of laurel and oak leaves. In a square beneath the medallion are carved a number of nautical emblems, and above this en a smaller slab is the following inscription: O! RESTOS E IMAGEN DEL GRANDE COLON - MIL SIGLOS DURAD GUARDADAS EN LA URNA - Y EN LA REMEMBRANZA DE NUESTRA NACION!- the translation of which is:- Oh! Remains and Image of Great Columbus, Rest in [page 103] Peace for a Thousand Centuries in this Urn and in the Remembrance of our Nation!
The supposed remains are in a niche behind the slab, and on the metallic receptacle enclosing them is the following Latin epitaph composed by Bishop Tres Palacios: - D. O. M. - CLARIS. HEROS LIGUSTIN. - CHRISTOPHORUS COLUMBUS - A SE, REI NAUTIC. SCIENT. INSIGN. - NOV. ORB. DETECT.- ATQUE CASTELL. ET LEGION. REGIB. SUBJECT. - VALLISOL. OCCUB. - XIII KAL. JUN. A. MDVI - CARTUSIANOR. HISPAL. - CADAV. [page 104] CUSTOD. TRADIT. - TRANSFER. NAM IPSE PRESCRIPS. - IN HISPANIOLÆ METROP. ECC. HINC PACE SANCIT. GALLIÆ REIPUBLCÆ SESS. - IN HANC V.MAR. CONCEPT. IMM. CATH. OSSA TRANS.-M.AXIM. OM. ORD. FREQUENT. SEPULT. MAND. - XV KAL. FEB. A. MDCCXCVI. - HAVAN. CIVIT. - TANT. VIR. MERITOR. IN SE NON. IMMEM. EXUV. IN OPTAT. DIEM TUITUR - HOCCE MONUM. EREX. - PRESUL. ILL. D. D. PHILIPPO JPH. TRES PALACIOS - CIVIC. AC MILITAR. REI. GEN. PRÆF. EXMO. - D. D. LUDOVICO DE LAS CASAS.- The translation of this is: - "D.O.M. The Illustrious Genoese Hero Christopher Columbus, Renowned For His Nautical Knowledge, By Himself Discovered a New World And Gave It To The Kings Of Castille And Leon - Died at Valladolid In The Year MDVI, The Body Being Entrusted To The Care Of the Carthusians Of Seville, Was Transferred As He Himself Prescribed, To The Metropolitan Church Of Hispaniola - Hence Peace Being Concluded And The Island Ceded, To France, The Frequently Buried Remains Were Given Burial In The Presence Of An Immense Concourse Of All Classes, On The Kalends Of The XVth Of February In The Year MDCCXCVI. - The City Of Havana Unwilling That So Great And Meritorious a Man Should Be Forgotten And To Guard His Precious Remains On This Auspicious Day Erects This Monument."
The Most Illustrious D.D. Philip Jph. Tres Palacios, Bishop - And The Most Excellent D. D. Ludovico De Las Casas Captain-General Of The Civil And Military Government."
The remains will be transferred to the new monument for the Cathedral, which has been described in its proper place.
MELERO: STATUE OF COLUMBUS FOR THE TOWN OF COLON, CUBA.-This beautiful statue to be erected in the centre of the Park of Isabella, tho Catholic, at Colon, in the Island of Cuba, is the work of a talented Cuban painter, Miguel Melero, Director of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, at Havana.
The whole monument will be 28 feet [8.5 meter] in height. The pedestal rises on a wide flight of steps, forming an octagonal prism, with a plain capital on which stands the statue. (Cut No. 62.)
From the projecting faces are four detached pillars, and four bronze lions modelled by the same artist. The front face will bear a commemorative inscription on a bronze slab.
The statue is of bronze, about eight feet [2.5 meter] in height and represents Columbus leaning on an anchor and a capstan, pointing to the newly discovered land: the model in clay, has been exhibited, and has met with universal approval. The artist has faithfnlly followed the descriptions of Columbus, and the dress, anchor and capstan are historically correct.
The bronze for the statue has been donated by the planters of the District of Colon, and the statue has just been successfully cast in the foundry of the town of Colon, by Messrs. Armstrong & Estapé.
The monument will be enclosed by a bronze chain depending from eight pillars of artistic design.
THE CARDENAS STATUE.-In the Plaza. de Recreo in the city of Cárdenas, there is a bronze statue of Columbus which was erected on the 25th of December, 1862. (Cut No. 63.) The model was made in Madrid by the eminent [page 107] Valencian sculptor, Francisco Piquer, following the conception of Mr. Caveda, of the Academy of History. It was cast in bronze at Marseilles by Morell. The hero is represented attired in a very modest garb, lifting the veil that covers a part of the globe with the left hand, and pointing with the right, to the regions discovered by him. In the front face of the pedestal, there is a very beautiful bass-relief representing the triumph of Faith and Hell vanquished by the victory that Columbus obtained by his discovery. On the back of the pedestal, there is an inscription which runs as follows:
OCCIDUARUM REGIONUM INVENTOR GENUÆ DECORI MAXIMO HISPANIARUM ORNAMENTO E CUNCTO FERE LATO PATET TERRARUM ORBE INSOLENS PROPTER FACTUM DERISUM OLIM NUNC OMNIUM PLAUSUS, SANCTA CUM ADMIRATIONE EXTORQUENTI CHRISTOPHORUS COLUMBUS HOCCINI PIETATIS ERGO ET GRATI ANIMI INSIGNE MONUMENTUM SECUNDA ELIZABETHO REGNANTE OPPIDUM CARDENAS POSUIT ANNO MDCCCLXII.
The distinguished sculptor, Mr. Fernando Miranda, then a disciple of Piquer and now residing at New York, greatly helped him in modelling this beautiful work.
The statue in Mexico and that by Cordier in Paris, are almost exact copies of that by Piquer, in the city of Cárdenas, Cuba: the attitude in each being exactly alike, with the exception of the right arm, which in that by Piquer points to the newly discovered land, while in that of Cordier, it is raised in a triumphant manner.
CIFUENTES, CUBA.-Miss Felipa G. Lázaro, a young lady artist born at Madrid, Spain, and at present residing in Havana, has modeled a handsome bust about three feet high [90 cm] which is to be erected on a pedestal in the town of Cifuentes, Cuba.
The features, as far as I can judge from the cuts I have seen, are taken from the portrait in the Naval Museum, at Madrid. On the lower part of the bust is the coat of arms conferred upon Columbus by the Catholic Kings. Miss Lázaro is not only a sculptress, but also a painter of repute. She studied under the able sculptor Molinelli, as well as under the eminent Spanish water color painter, Lozana.
STATUE AT BAYAMO.-In the Plaza del Cristo, at Bayamo, Cuba, a small statue was erected on October 1892. From descriptions I have read, it is the work of the Messrs. Castells, and is a very beautiful piece of workmanship. A correspondent of the journal La Union, published at Manzanillo, says that it is unique in its class, as the material consists of the first earth trodden by Columbus in Cuba, and being painted white resembles Carrara marble. It [page 108] appears therefore, that the statue is of clay, but as the question as to the first earth trodden by Columbus in Cuba has yet to be decided, I cannot say from whence the clay for the statue came.
For the greater part of the descriptions and pictures of the monuments in Cuba, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Carlos I. Párraga, a distinguished lawyer and resident of Havana.
MONUMENT AT SANTO DOMINGO.-This statue was erected in 1886: its cost was defrayed by a public subscription instituted by the Municipal Council of the city of Santo Domingo. It stands in the centre of the principal square of the city, in the immediate vicinity of the Governor's palace. The pedestal is square, of pyramidal form, and the material is white marble. The statue is bronze, and of colossal size. The head of the Admiral as well as his attire in the garb of the navigators of his time are strictly historic. (Cut No. 64.)
On the pedestal of the statue and in the attitude of ascending to reach the Admiral, is an Indian female figure probably intended for Anacaona, the caciquess of Xaragua.
The inscription on the monument reads:
ILUSTRE Y ESCLARECIDO DON CRISTOVAL COLON.
The statue which was cast in France some years ago, stands in the centre of the Plaza facing the cathedral. [page 109]
STATUE AT COLON.--In 1866, Eugénie, Empress of the French, presented to Gen. Tomas Mosquera, ex-President of Colombia, and Minister at the French Court, this beautiful monument as a gift to the republic of which he was the representative. The present was formally accepted on the 29th day of June, of the same year, and was erected in 1870, in the city of Colon, in the new ward named Christopher Columbus, at the northern entrance to the Panama canal and where the buildings of the Company are situated. (Cut No. 65.)
This group was exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1867 and was much admired. It is of bronze, of colossal size, and stands on a low square block of granite, which is entirely unpretentious, artistically. It represents Columbus in the uniform of an Admiral, wearing a rich mantle over his shoulders. The head is uncovered and he is raising an Indian girl who is half crouching before him. The head is superb and the artist has rigorously adhered to the descriptions we have of the Admiral.
On the face of the pedestal is the following incription:-
"CHRISTOPHORUS COLUMBUS EXTREMUM, INGENTEM, CÆCUM TRANS ÆQUORA MUNDUM, HESPERIÆ RATES DUXERAT: IPSE DEDIT. IV IDUS OCTOBRIS M.CCCMII."
On the back is another inscription reading:-
"EL GRAN GENERAL TOMAS C. DE MOSQUERA PRESENTO AL CONGRESO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE COLOMBIA ESTA ESTATUA, DON DE LA EMPARATRIZ DE LOS FRANCESES, EUGENIA."
The statue was received at Panama, on May 1, 1870, but I have been unable to aseertain the date of its dedication. [See also page 81]
MONUMENT AT MEXICO.-This monument is due entirely to the munificence of Mr. Antonio Escandon, a rich banker of Mexico. His nephew, Mr. Alejandro Arango y Escandon was entrusted by him with the selection of the artist and the persons to be represented in the monument.
Mr. Arango placed the work in the hands of Charles Cordier, the distinguished French sculptor, in 1873, and it was delivered to him at Vera Cruz, in 1875, but on account of some discussion about the selection of the site, it was not dedicated until August, 1877. It had been previously exhibited at the Palais de l'lndustrie, Paris, and was much admired. The cost of the work was nearly $100,000. (Cut No. 66.)
The monument occupies a splendid site on the Calzada de la Reforma, which extends to Chapultepec. It is surrounded by a beautiful garden and is enclosed by posts and chains, so placed as to allow of a very close inspection of the monument and its details.
The form of the socle is octagonal, each side measuring about sixteen and one-half feet [5 meter]. At each of the angles, there is an ornamental bronze lamp polst each of which has a cluster of five gas lights.
On the socle stands the base which is in the form of a square with truncated angles. The faces are adorned as follows:- on the east side are engraved the words, "A Cristobal Colon," and this inscription is bordered by four bronze bands set in the stone, surmounted by the coat of arms of Columbus and Castile,with a pome granate beneath. There is a shorter inscription stating that the monument was dedicated in August, 1877. The west side is adorned with laurels and palms in bronze, and an ellipse containing a fragment of the letter of Columbus to Rafael Sanchez commencing, "trigesimo die ...... ad cæteras alias pervenimus"
Under this ellipse is the dedication reading:-
"CHRISTOFORO COLUMBO, HOC ÆTERNÆ ADMIRATIONIS TESTIMONIUM EREGI URBIS MEXICANÆ OFFERERI VOLUIT. ANTONIUS ESCANDON. MDCCCLXXV."
On the south side there is a beautiful bass-relief in bronze, representing Columbus taking leave of Fray Juan Perez: in the background appear the Convent of La Rábida and the village of Palos.
On the north side is another bass-relief showing the Landing of Columbus. Both possess great artistic merit and are about four and a half feet [1.4 meter] by about four feet two inches [1.25 meter].
At each of the truncated angles of this pedestal stands a bronze statue about seven feet two inches [2.2 meter] in height: they represent four monks, Fray Juan Perez, Las Casas, Deza and Gante. The first and the third named were personal friends of Columbus and warmly aided him in his enterprise. Las Casas is the wellknown "Apostle of the Indians," and Gante was the founder of the first college in Mexico, in 1529. All are represented seated.
This pedestal is surmounted by one of similar design, and on it stands the colossal statue of Columbus in white marble: its height is twelve feet [3.7 meter]. He stands with his right hand extended towards heaven, as if giving thanks for his great discovery, while with bis left hand he raises the veil which concealed the world he has just discovered.
The entire monument, which is forty-five feet [13.7 meter] high, is of Russian jasper and is a beautiful and noble structure; but the statue makes Columbus a young man and his features are not those so well-known from the description of his contemporaries.
For the data used in the foregoing description I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. Helen S. Conant, a lady well-known. in the literary world, and who has always taken a great interest in the history and literature of Spanish America.
THE MONUMENT AT LIMA.-In the centre of the Plaza del Acho, in the Alameda del Acho in Lima, a splendid monument has been erected in memory of Columbus. On the beautiful pedestal which is surrounded by a railing of artistic design, and stands in a pretty garden, there is a colossal group in Italian marble, representing Columbus partially drawing aside his mantle with his right hand, and diselosing an Indian maiden typifying America, rising before him, while in bis left hand, he holds a cross. Columbus is richly clad in the full dress of an Admiral, with ar ample mantle and plumed cap. (Cut No. 67.)
The group, which is of great artistic merit, was exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1867, where it obtained a prize, and is the work of the famous Italian sculptor, Salvatore Revelli. The four faces of the pedestal, which is of white marble, have beautiful bass-reliefs and inscriptions and are the work of the Italian artist, Gluseppe Palombini. At the four corners of the railings are [page 115] massive, square granite pillars, with bronze lion's heads on the sides, and ~dolphins and tridents in the same metal on the top of each.
This statue was erected in 1880. The features of the Admiral are in strict accordance with the descriptions we have of him, and his attire is that in vogue -at the close of the XVIth- century. [See also page 81]
BUST AT SANTIAGO.-At Santiago, Chili, is a marble bust of Columbus, following the De Bry type. The bust has a Dutch cap and garments.
BOSTON.-MONTEVERDE: THE INFANT COLUMBUS.-The illustrious Monteverde is the sculptor of this superb work, which represents Columbus as a charming child at play: he is sitting on a mooring-post upon a pier, against which the waves are breaking; he is in deep meditation and holds a book in his hand. I have in my possession only some cuts representing it from different points of view, and I have also seen a plaster cast of it. It is difficult to conceive a more graceful work, and although it has no historical value, its artistic merit has been a source of inspiration for many distinguished Italian poets. This statue first revealed to the world the genius of the artist and was the stepping stone to his brilliant career. It was made in Rome in 1871, and after winning a gold medal at an exhibition at Parma, Italy, was presented to the city of Boston by Mr. A. P. Chamberlain, of Concord, Mass.
THE NEW YORK MONUMENT.-The finest memorial of Columbus, in this country, is the well-timed and graceful gift of the Italian residents of the United States to the city of New York, which stands on the beautiful site facing Central Park, at the corner of 59th Street and 8th Avenue. Cut No. 68.)
This handsome monument to the immortal discoverer of America was formally dedicated with appropriate and imposing ceremonies, at which a vast crowd of the residents of New York and visitors from all parts of the United States assisted, on the 12th of October, 1892, the 400th anniversary of the discovery of this Continent.
It was in January, 1889, that the order for the designs was sent te the Minister of Public Instruction, Bosselli, through Signor Barsotti, editor and proprietor of Il Progresso Italo-Americano, by the Italian residents of New York. In accordance with the instructions, sculptors were invited to compete for the design of the monument, it being expressly stipulated that none but artists of Italian birth would be eligible. As the architecture as well as the design had to be passed upon, nine judges were appointed, three painters, three architects and three sculptors; the painters were Mascari, Prosperi and Marini; the architects were Calderini, who designed the new Palace of Justice at Rome, Sacconi and Basile: the sculptors were Monteverde, the artist who executed the Infant Columbus, Gallori and Ferrari. The award of the committee was given to the celebrated sculptor, Gaetano Russo, the designer of many works which are world-renowned. Russo was born at Messina, Sielly, but in 1848, when he was scarcely out of his teens, his enthusiastie love of art led him to Rome, where he was a pupil in the Academia del Belle Arti, on leaving which institution, he became the pupil of Monteverde. He is in receipt of a handsome pension from Messina, his native city.
I will now give a description of the monument. It is seventy-seven feet [23.5 meter] high. The terraced pedestal and octagonal corner post are of red granite from Ravenna, against which the noble figure of Genius and the magnificent Alpine eagle, the strongest as well as the fiercest of all its family, on opposite sides of the second terrace of the pedestal are seen to the greatest advantage, both being of the purest marble from the celebrated quarries of Carrara. The ornamental capital of the column is also of marble, and the plain pedestal which is crowned with the marble statue of the great Admiral is of gray granite. The bass-reliefs below the Genius and at its sides are of bronze, as well as the six prows-three on each side of the column, and the anchors and central inscription -"A CRISTOFORO COLOMBO "-forming altogether a very beautiful combination of color and material. The size of the bass-reliefs is ten feet [3 meter] by two [60 cm]; the Genius is ten feet four inches [3.15 meter] in height. The figure of Columbus is twelve feet nine inches [3.9 meter] high. The Admiral is represented at the moment his vague ideas have assumed sure and definite shape. He stands proudly erect, his piercing gaze seeming even then to discern the marvelous discoveries that awaited him thousands of miles away. The ship's rudder grasped firmly in [page 118] his right hand, is emblematic of the solution of the great problem which he has just concelved. The anchors symbolize the merchant service, to which his vessels, the Pinta, the Niña and the Santa Maria, belonged. The Genius, and the Eagle below the figure are magnificent in conception, design and execution.
The bass-reliefs under the Genius and the Eagle, represent two supreme moments in the life of the Admiral. The ships, boats, banners and costumes in both are fairly correct historically. In the first of these bass-reliefs, Colum- [page 119] bus is depicted starting off in his boat, to step upon the newly discovered land, the sight of which has just gladdened the hearts of himself and his companions. The second bass-relief shows Columbus reverently returning thanks to Heaven for his success. On the beach two sailors are hauling up his boat.
Pressing about him, caressing his hands and kissing the hem of his robe, are grouped his companions, shedding tears of joy and entreating his forgiveness, while peeping through a sereen of tropical foliage, the wondering and half frightened Indians gaze at the strangers.
The spaces between the bass-reliefs and at the sides of the Genius and the Eagle bear the following inscriptions in English and Italian, composed by Ugo Fleres, the Sicilian poet:-
The English inscription reads as follows, on the sides of the base between the massive posts which form the corners:-
"TO CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS,
THE ITALIAN RESIDENTS IN AMERICA.
SCOFFED AT BEFORE; DURING THE VOYAGE MENACED; AFTER IT CHAINED; AS GENEROUS AS OPPRESSED, TO THE WORLD HE GAVE A WORLD.
JOY AND GLORY NEVER UTTERED A MORE THRILLING CALL THAN THAT WHICH RESOUNDED FROM THE CONQUERED OCEAN IN SIGHT OP THE FIRST, AMERICAN ISLAND, LAND! LAND!
ON THE XVIITH OF OCTOBER MDCCCXCII THE FOURTH CENTENARY OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA IN IMPERISHABLE REMEMBRANCE."
The Italian inscription is:- "A CRISTOFORO COLOMBO - GLI ITALIANI RESIDENTI IN AMERICA - IRRISO PRIMA - MINACCIATO DURANTE IL VIAGGIO - INCATENATO DOPO - SAPENDO ESSERE GENEROSO - QUANTO OPPRESSO - DONAVA UN MONDO AL MONDO - LA GIOIA E LA GLORIA - NON EBBERO MAI PIU' SOLENNE GRIDO - DI QUELLO CHE RISUONO' - SULL' OCEANO DOMATO - IN VISTA DELLA PRIMA ISOLA AMERICANA: - TERRA! TERRA! - NEL XII OTTOBRE MDCCCXCII - IV CENTENARIO - DELLA SCOPERTA D'AMERICA - A IMPERITURA MEMORIA."
COLUMBUS FOUNTAIN, NEW YORK CITY.-The projected Columbus Fountain for Central Park, New York, is the work of the celebrated Spanish sculptor, Fernando Miranda. The f ountain is to have a basin one hundred feet [30 meter] in diameter. From the centre rises a section of the globe on the summit of which [page 120] stands the Admiral with his two Captains, Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and his brother, Vicente Yañez Pinzon. The total height of the globe and figures above the water is to be twenty-nine feet [9 meter], and the figures will be of bronze and sixteen feet high [5 meter]. The fountain will also be of bronze, while the proposed site is the Plaza at the entrance to Central Park. The artist has put the finishing touches to his model and nothing now remains to be done but the casting of the group.
The figure of Columbus is to face Fifth Avenue. The technical difficulties which the sculptor had to surmount were many. The grouping of the figures [page 121] in juxtaposition was a serious problem without making a plexus of the legs, but, as will be seen from the illustrations, Mr. Miranda has cleverly overcome the difficulty. The figures stand in natural positions-Columbus grasping the cross-hilt of his sword and looking eagerly ahead, while Vicente Pinzon points with the impulsiveness of youth to the land which is dimly discernible in the distance, and Martin Pinzon shading his eyes with his left hand, is looking in the same direction as his companions. (Cuts Nos. 69 and 70.)
The dress and arms are absolutely correct, even to the lesser details of the decorations of the skirt of the tunic.
The fountain is a gift from the citizens of the Spanish race of America to the city of New York, and the Spanish government has offered to supply from her arsenals any deficiencies in metal; a special act for that purpose having been passed by the Cortes. Several,of the South American Republics have already sent their old cannon to New York, and church bells are also promised to be used in combination with the gun metal. The total weight of metal required will be 20,000 pounds.
Mr. Juan N. Navarro, the Mexican consul, and Mr. Arturo Baldasano y Topete, the Spanish consul, have rendered valuable aid in pashing the project, while the Spanish ambassador at Washington, Don Enrique Dupûy de Lôme, has so interested the Queen that she as well as the Infanta have promised to send specimens of needlework and painting, the work of their own hands-the King's present consisting of toys; all of which are to be disposed of at a fair to be held in New York.
Mr. Miranda gives the labor of years as his contribution. He is a native of Valencia, Spain, and was a pupil of the sculptor Piquer of the court of Queen Isabella II. During the Centennial Exposition he came to the United States, and has since done considerable work for leading American publications. He is the designer of a bust of Cervantes which it is proposed to place in Central Park. King Alfonso XII created him a Comendador of the Royal Order of Isabella, and he was knighted several years ago.
This fountain, which is the gift of the Spanish colony in New York, will bear an inscription which reads as follows:
"A COLON Y LOS PINZONES LOS ESPAÑOLES E HISPANO-AMERICANOS DE NUEVA YORK."
"TO COLUMBUS AND THE PINZONS, THE SPANIARDS AND SPANISH-AMERICANS OF NEW YORK."
NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY.-The bust in the possession of the New York Historical Society, has some artistic merit, but as it is simply a duplicate [page 122] of that in the Museo Capitolino, at Rome, which is entirely imaginary, it has no historical value.
SUÑOL.-STATUE OF COLUMBUS.-A replica of his famous work now in Madrid, and which is to be erected by the New York Genealogical and Biogragraphical Society in April of this year, is now ready for dedication, the necessary funds for the purpose having been raised. Dr. Chauncey M. Depew will deliver the oration and Edmund Clarence Stedman will read an original poem written for the occasion.
As a complete description and engravings of the original monument and the statue at Madrid, is given elsewhere, it is unnecessary, for me to enter into any further particulars regarding the New York replica.
STATUE AT CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK.-Mrs. Marshall O. Roberts has presented the statue of the Admiral, the, work of Miss Emma Stebbins, which stands in Central Park. The statue is seven feet [2.1 meter] high, and represents Columbus as a sailor with a mantle thrown over the shoulder. The artist has followed the facial characteristics of the Jovian type.
COLUMBUS MEMORIAL ARCH IN NEW YORK.-A competition was opened on September 1, 1892, and a prize offered for the most acceptable design for the erection of a memorial arch at the entrance to Central Park, at Fifty-ninth Street and Fifth Avenue.
The committee appointed were Richard M. Hunt, John Lafarge, Augustus St. Gaudens, L. P. di Cesnola and Robert J. Hoguet. These gentlemen awarded the prize to a design signed "Columbia" which was submitted by Henry B. Hertz, of this city. A gold medal was given to the artist, and a permanent monument of metal and bronze to the Genius of Discovery, costing $350,000, will be erected, a large part of the amount necessary for the purpose having already been pledged.
The main body of the arch is of white marble and with its fountains, its polished monolithic-columns of pigeon-blood marble, its mosaic and gold inlaying, and the bass-relief work and surmounting group of bronze, will be an architectural monument of which the city may well be proud.
From the ground to the top of the bronze caravel in the centre of the allegorical group with which the arch will be surmounted the height will be 160 feet [50 meter], and the entire width of the arch will be 120 feet [37 meter]. The opening from the ground to the keystone will be eighty feet high [24.5 meter] and forty feet [12 meter] wide. On the front of each pier will be two columns of pigeon-blood marble. Between each pair of columns and at the base of each pier will be large marble fountains, the water playing about figures representing Victory and Immortality. The surface of [page 123] the piers between the columns will be richly decorated in bass-relief, with gold and mosaic. Above each fountain will be a panel, one representing Columbus at the Court of Spain, and the other the great Discoverer, at the Convent of La Rábida, jast before his departure on the voyage which resulted in the discovery of America. In the spaces on either side of the crown of the arch will be colossal reclining figures of Victory in bass-relief.
The highly decorated frieze will be of polished red marble, and surmounting the projecting keystone of the arch will be a bronze representation of an American eagle. On the central panel of the attic will be the inscription:
"THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN MEMORIAL GLORIOUS TO CHRISTOPHER COLUIMBUS, DISCOVERER OF AMERICA."
The ornamentation of the attic consists of Columbus' entry into Barcelona. Crowning all, is to be a group, in bronze symbolical of Discovery. In this group there will be twelve figures of heroic size, and a colossal statue representing the Genius of Discovery, heralding to the world the achievements of her children.
The designer is only twenty-one years old and is a student in the architectural department of Columbia College.
THE STATUE AT FAIRMOUNT PARK,-PHILADELPHIA.-In regard to this statue which I saw at the World's Fair in 1876, I will avail myself of a splendid work entitled The Masterpieces of the International Exhibition of 1876, Gebbie & Barrie, publishers, Philadelphia,. from which I have taken the following data :-
"The history of this memorial is closely connected with that of the Exhibition. The Italian residents of Philadelphia, the year before the Centennial, inaugurated a movement, having for its purpose the erection of a fitting monument in memory of the Discoverer, and which should stand in the immediate vicinity of the Exhibition Building. The necessary funds were quickly raised and the first statue of Columbus ever erected in the United States by private subscription, was ordered from Italy. In 1876, Mr. Viti, the Itallan Consul at Philadelphia, who was in charge of the project, received photographs of the model, and the statue was completed and dedicated before the close of the Exhibition.
"It now ornaments the beautiful grounds of Fairmount Park, near the site of the Exhibition. The monument is lofty and the figure of Columbus is of colossal proportions:-the whole structure being of the finest white marble. The statue represents the Admiral, as Discoverer, Geographer and Navigator. The position is a standing one, with the right hand resting on a globe while the fingers are on the spot representing the American Continent. At his [page 124] feet, is an anchor, typifying "Navigation," while his name, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, is carved in large letters on the socle beneath the figure. (Cut No.71.)
"On the pedestal below, is a bass-relief representing the Admiral leaving the Pinta to plant the Castillan flag upon the beach."
MONUMENT AT SCRANTON, PA.-The Italian residents of Scranton, Pa., and vicinity, desiring to immortalize the memory of their illustrious countryman, [page 125] have erected a monument to Columbus which is the work of the distinguished Italian sculptor, Alberto Cottini. The statue, which is of heroic size, represents the Admiral standing on a square marble plinth which rests on a base of the same material. He is attired in the garb of the Admiral of the Indies. The inscription on the front of the plinth reads as follows:-
THE WASHINGTON STATUE.-Carderera says:-" In one of the façades of the Capitol of Washington, a beautiful group in marble representing Columbus with a symbolical female figure by his side, was erected in 1844. This excellent work executed at Naples, by the sculptor Persico, has glaring incongruities in dress, notwithstanding the fact that the famous Discoverer is represented as being clad in a snit of armor which it is said is still in the possession of his descendants in Italy. Judging from the engraving before us, it will be seen that neither the armor, nor a single detail of the dress in which Columbus is attired, belonged to his time, but to a period of one hundred years afterwards."
I regret to dissent from the opinion of so eminent an authority as Carderera, but he never saw the statue, while I have unfortunately had the opportunity of seeing it many times. Besides the inaccuracies that Carderera mentions, the visage of Columbus bears no resemblance at all to the descriptions we have of him, while the attitude of the Admiral. with the globe in his hand strikes me as being supremely ridiculous: he looks like a warrior of the XVIIth century, playing baseball with a preposterously large ball: his position is also unnatural, while I cannot find words to express my surprise at the inartistic handling of the figure of the Indian maiden.
The cost of the group was $24,000 and the sculptor was at work on it for five years. I do not consider it worth reproduction.
DOOR OF THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON.-The main central entrance of the Capitol at Washington, is the famons bronze door, the work of the American sculptor, Randolph Rogers, which was cast by F. von Müller, at Munich, in 1861. The door is 17 feet high [5.2 meter] and 9 feet [2.75 meter] wide and weighs 20,000 pounds. It is a folding or double door and is set in a bronze casing projecting about a foot from the leaves. On the casing, are four figures which are allegorical representations of Asia, Africa, Europe and America, and on the casing between them runs a border typifying Conquest and Navigation. The high-reliefs on the panels show important events in the life of Columbus, and at the sides of [page 126] them are statues of sixteen of the most prominent persons who took part in the discovery. (Cut No.72.)
The eight large high-reliefs on the panels show: 1. -Columbus before the Council of Salamanca. 2. Departure of Columbus from the Convent of ta Rábida for the Spanish Court. 3. Audience of Columbus at the Court of Fer- [page 127] dinand and Isabella. 4. Departure of Columbus from Palos, on bis first voyage of discovery. 6. First meeting of Columbus with the natives. 6. Triumphal entry of Columbus into Barcelona. 7. Columbus in chains. 8. Scene at the death-bed of Columbus.
On the semicircular transom of the door, a semicircular high-relief shows the landing of Columbus on the Island of San Salvador. On the jambs of the doors, there are sixteen small statues set in niches representing: 1. The Pope Alexander VI, (Roderigo Lenzoli). 2. Pedfo Gonzalez de Mendoza, the Great Cardinal, Archbishop of Toledo. 3. Ferdinand, King of Spain. 4. Isabella, Queen of Spain. 5. Charles VIII, King of France. 6. Beatriz de Bobadilla, Marchioness of Moya, who befriended Columbus. It is said that the likeness is that of Mrs. Rogers, the wife of the sculptor. 7. John II, King of Portugal, who rejected the plans of Columbus. 8. Henry VII, King of England, appealed to by Bartholomew Columbus, on behalf of bis brother. 9. Fray Juan Perez, Prior of the Convent of La Rábida. 10. Martin Alonzo Pinzon, commander of the Pinta. 11. Hernando Cortes, conqueror of Mexico. 12 Bartholomew Columbus, brother of Columbus. It is said that the likeness is that of the sculptor. 13. Alonzo de Ojeda, a companion of Columbus. 14. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean. 15. Amerigo Vespucci, after whom by a freak of fortune the New World was named. 16. Francisco Pizarro, conqueror of Peru.
Over the transom, is a grand head of Columbus, beneath which is an. American eagle with extended wings. Between the panels and at top and bottom of the leaves of the door, are ten projecting heads. Those between the panels are historlans who have written about the voyages of Columbus from his own time down to the present day, ending with Irving and Prescott. The two heads at the tops of the leaves are female heads, and the two next the floor have Indian characteristies.
In the Rotunda of the Capitol, there are four high-reliefs over the doors, one representing Columbus and the others, Raleigh, Cabot and La Salle.
THE CHICAGO FOUNTAIN.-On the site between the City Hall and the Court House building in Chicago, on the Washington Street frontage, stands a statue of Columbus, the gift of John B. Drake, proprietor of the Grand Pacific Hotel. The style of the monument is Gothic, and the base is of granite from Baveno, Italy. On the front of the pedestal will be placed a bronze statue of the Admiral seven feet [2.1 meter] high, cast in Rome; the statue is the work of Mr. R. H. Park, of Chicago.
The foundation has a receptacle holding two tons of ice, and has ten faucets, each provided with a bronze drinking cup.
The inscription- reads:-"ICE WATER DRINKING FOUNTAIN PRESENTED TO THE CITY OF CHICAGO BY JOHN B. DRAKE, 1892."
At the feet of the statue of Columbus, who is represented as a student of geography at the University of Pavia, is inscribed:
"CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, 1492-1892."The red granite base for the fountain, came from Turin, Italy.
THE ST. LOUIS STATUE. -In the city of St. Louis, Mo., in Shaw's Garden, is a statue of Columbus, which is the gift of Mr. Shaw to the city. The figure of the Admiral is of gilt bronze of heroic size and stands upon a granite pedestal, which has four bronze bass-reliefs portraying the principal events in his career. The features follow the Genoa model and the statue was cast at Munich.
THE STATUE AT SACRAMENTO, CAL.-In the State Capitol at Sacramento, stands a beautiful and artistic group in white marble, the work of Larkin G. Mead of Vermont, which was presented to the State of California in 1883, by D. O. Mills. It is of white marble and represents Columbus pleading his cause before Queen Isabella of Spain. The Spanish sovereign is represented as seated. At her left hand kneels the first Admiral, while a page on the right contemplates the scene of the fabulous offer of the Queen to sacrifice her jewels to aid in the project to discover the New World. The statue was executed by Mr. Mead, in Florence, Italy.