Statues - Hither & Thither

Germany
Hamburg
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg

Rathausmarkt
(Rathaus)

Fassadenfiguren des Rathauses

Sculptures at the Town Hall

Various sculptors
1886-97

Hamburg /  Fassadenfiguren des Rathauses   Hamburg /  Fassadenfiguren des Rathauses

Description

The Hamburg City Hall is one of the few completely preserved examples of historicism in Germany. The three-winged granite and sandstone building has a 111-meter (364 ft.)-wide façade with a 112 meter (367 ft.) high central tower. The excellent combination of Italian and North German Renaissance elements on the façade creates a harmonious overall effect.

The sculpture program shows the civic virtues, the civic occupations, German rulers, the saints of the Hamburg parishes, six important figures in the medieval history of Hamburg and some other subjects.

A. Central Tower

Phoenix

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  1. At the tower shaft between the large clock and the coat of arms of Hamburg is a large sculpture of a Phoenix, wingspan over 2 meter. The fully plastically modeled phoenix spreads its wings wide apart to rise from the flames. A gilt medallion in below shows the old City Hall burnt in 1842 with the motto "Resurgam" (I will rise again).It is reminiscent of the great fire disaster of 1842. Exactly 50 years after the great fire of 6 May 1842, the inauguration ceremony of the "new town hall" was celebrated. The large phoenix figure created by Aloys Denoth was drawn by four black horses to the town hall.

Civic virtues

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Below the balcony is a large coat of arms of Hamburg (sculpted by Peiffer) and bronze statues representing the civic virtues:

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  1. Tapferkeit / Courage, a seated woman in armour with sword and helmet. sculpted by Richard Thiele.
  2. Frömmigkeit / Piety, a seated woman with a large cross. sculpted by Richard Thiele.
  3. Eintracht / Harmony, a seated woman with a sword on her lap. sculpted by Karl Garbers.
  4. Weisheit / Wisdom, a seated woman with a book and a torch. sculpted by Karl Garbers.

That the civic virtues are arranged one above the emperors, symbolizes the freedom of the city of Hamburg from the Crown, since Hamburg was not an imperial city, but a Hanseatic city.

Hammonia

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  1. A mosaic representing the Hamburg town goddess is above the main entrance. Designed by Arthur Fitger, and executed by a mosaic firm in Mettlach a.d. Saar (1896).

B. Front façade: Emperors and Kings

On the front side between the window recesses stand twenty kings and emperors of the old German Empire, from Charlemagne to Franz II. The arrangement of the emperors in the front façade - from left (Große Johannisstraße) to right (Alter Wall):

    East Wing

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  1. lothar v. sachsen - 1125-1137 - Lothar III. von Sachsen / Lothair II of Supplinburg (before 1075 - Breitenwang, Tirol, 1137), Duke of Saxony as well as King of Germany from 1125 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Bruno Kruse (1892-93)
  2. heinrich iii. - 1039-1056 - Heinrich III. / Henry III the Black (1017 - 1056), member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors, King of Germany 1028, Holy Roman Emperor 1046 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Wilhelm Giesecke (1892-93)
  3. konrad ii. - 1024-1039 - Konrad II. / Conrad II (c. 990 - Utrecht 1039), Holy Roman Emperor from 1027 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Wilhelm Kumm (1892-94)
  4. otto ii. - 973-983 - Otto II. (955 - Roma 983), Holy Roman Emperor from 973 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Karl Garbers (1892-93)
  5. otto i. - 936-973 - Otto I., der Große / Otto the Great (912 - Memleben 973), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, reigning from 936 until his death in 973 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by August Vogel (1892-93)
  6. heinrich i. - 919-936 - Heinrich I. der Vogler / Henry the Fowler (c. 876 - Memleben 936), Duke of Saxony, 912-836, and King of Germany, 919-936 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Friedrich Pfannschmidt (1892-93)
  7. konrad i. - 911-918 - Konrad I. / Conrad I of Germany (c. 881 - Weilburg 918), Duke of Franconia from 906 and King of Germany from 911 to 918 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Theodor Richard Thiele (1892)
  8. ludwig d. deutsche 840-876 - Ludwig II. der Deutsche / Louis the German (c. 810 - Frankfurt am Main 876), grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Georg Küsthardt (1892-93)
  9. ludwig d. fromme 814-840 - Ludwig der Fromme / Louis the Pious (Chasseneuil near Poitiers 778 - Ingelheim am Rhein 840), King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Robert Ockelmann (1892-93)

    Tower

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  10. karl der grosse 768-814 - Karl der Große - Charlemagne (unknown place 742 - Aachen 814), King of the Franks (since 768) and Emperor (since 800) (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Joseph von Kramer (1892-93)
  11. friedrich der rothbart 1152-1190 - Friedrich I. Barbarossa / Frederick I Barbarossa (ca. 1122 - 1190), German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by August Vogel (1893)

    West Wing

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  12. heinrich vi. - 1190-1197 - Heinrich VI. (Nijmegen c. 1165 - Messina 1197), King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Engelbert Peiffer (1892-93)
  13. friedrich ii. - 1218-1250 - Friedrich II. / Frederick II (Jesi near Ancona 1194 - Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor 1220-1250, one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Carl Echtermeier (1892-93)
  14. rudolf i. - 1273-1291 - Rudolf von Habsburg / Rudolph I (also known as Rudolph of Habsburg) (Limburg, Breisgau 1218 - Speyer 1291), King of the Romans from 1273 until his death (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Karl Hilgers (1892-93)
  15. karl iv. - 1347-1378 - Karl IV. / Charles IV (Praha 1316 - Praha 1378) King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314, King of Italy from 1355 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1355 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by August Herzig (1892-93)
  16. max i. - 1493-1519 - Maximilian I (Wiener Neustadt 1459 - Wels 1519), King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486; Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Joseph von Kramer (1892-93)
  17. karl v. - 1519-1558 - Karl V. / Charles V (Gent 1500-1558), Holy Roman Emperor, 1519-1558 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Jacob Ungerer (1892-93)
  18. max ii - 1564-1576 - Maximilian II (Wien 1527 - Regensburg 1576), Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Friedrich Hartzer (1892-93)
  19. ioseph ii - 1765-1790 - Joseph II. (Wien 1741 - Wien 1790), Holy Roman Emperor, 1765-90 (Wikipedia).
    sculpted by Carl Börner (1892)
  20. franz ii. - 1792-1806 - Franz II. / Francis II (Firenze 1768 - Wien 1835), the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Aloys Denoth (1892-94)

C. All four façades: Civil occupations / Hanseatic towns

28 character busts portraying representatives of civil occupations were placed on the triangular frontons above the windows of the of the representation level. In these busts, the sculptor Aloys Denoth has simultaneously portrayed contemporary celebrities. The series starts at the façade at the Große Johannisstraße, continues along the Rathausmarkt and ends at the Alter Wall. According to the classification of the town hall are located on the left side of the Rathausmarkt the portrait of President of the citizenship (No. 4) and on the right the portrait of the mayor (No. 21). In the fronton below the busts are coats of arms of the Hanseatic towns.

    Große Johannisstraße
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  1. Fischer / Fisherman.
    coat of arms: Tallinn.
  2. Schiffer / Skipper.
    coat of arms: Riga.
  3. Kaufmann / Merchant.
    coat of arms: Unknown.

    Rathausmarkt, east wing
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  4. Bürgerschaftspräsident / Citizenship President, showing Johann Georg Mönckeberg (1839-1908) (with bell and bill in his hand).
    coat of arms: Lübeck.
  5. Schneider / Tailor.
    coat of arms: Rostock.
  6. Schornsteinfeger / Chimneysweep.
    coat of arms: Stralsund.
  7. Schumacher / Shoemaker, showing Master W. Knieriem from St. Pauli (Lange Straße 18/19).
    coat of arms: Wismar.
  8. Bierbrauer oder Wirt / Brewer or landlord (with cigar).
    coat of arms: Lüneburg.
  9. Bäcker / Baker.
    coat of arms: Magdeburg.
  10. Schlachter / Butcher
    coat of arms: Braunschweig.
  11. Bauer / Farmer
    coat of arms: Goslar (?).
  12. Gärtner / Gardener.
    coat of arms: Hannover.

    Rathausmarkt, west wing
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  13. Bildhauer / Sculptor, portraying Engelbert Peiffer (1830-1896) (Bildhaueratelier Hamm, Louisenweg 117).
    coat of arms: Stendal.
  14. Schiffbauer / Shipbuilder.
    coat of arms: Salzwedel Altstadt.
  15. Schlosser / Locksmith, portraying master locksmith Hermann Eggers.
    coat of arms: Berlin.
  16. Zimmermann / Carpenter.
    coat of arms: Köln.
  17. Maurer / Mason.
    coat of arms: Soest.
  18. Tischler / Cabinetmaker, portraying Julius Rud. Loose (craft workshop, Pulverteich 11).
    coat of arms: Aachen.
  19. Töpfer / Potter, portraying A.D.C. Warnstedt, master potter (Harvestehuder Mittelweg 142).
    coat of arms: Münster (Westfalen).
  20. Maler / Painter, portraying J.G. Valentin Ruths (1825-1905), landscape painter (Uhlenhorst, Fährstraße 23).
    coat of arms: Osnabrück.
  21. Bürgermeister / Mayor, portraying Carl Friedrich Petersen (1809-1892), Chairman of the City Hall Commission, with a model of the town hall.
    coat of arms: Bremen.

    Alter Wall
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  22. Ingenieur / Engineer, portraying senior engineer Andreas Meyer (1837-1901) (with the model of a bridge).
    coat of arms: Toruń.
  23. Richter / Judge, portraying Chief Justice Ernst Friedrich Sieveking (1836-1909).
    coat of arms: Königsberg in Preußen (now Kaliningrad)
  24. Gelehrter / Scholar, portraying Justus Brinckmann (1843-1915) with collection objects in the hands (a cup is broken from the façade).
    coat of arms: Danzig (without the crown).
  25. Lehrer / Teacher, portraying the geographer Prof. Dr. Georg von Neumayer (1826-1909), director of the German observatory (then at Stintfang).
    coat of arms: Unknown.
  26. Pastor.
    coat of arms: Staveren (the coat of arms is not correct).
  27. Baumeister / Architect, portraying architect Wilhelm Hauer (1836-1905) - with the model of the Church of St. John (Harvestehude).
    coat of arms: Amsterdam.
  28. Fondmakler / Fund Broker, portraying Eduard Behrens sr. (1824-1895), a banker and art collector.
    coat of arms: Unknown.

D. Gables: Saints

The gables are crowned by the patron saints of the Hamburg parishes and in addition of the two dissolved monasteries, which previously were at the place where the Town Hall now stands. The series starts at the façade at the Große Johannisstraße, continues along the Rathausmarkt and the Alter Wall and ends at the courtyard.

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  1. st. nicolaus - St. Nikolaus / St. Nicholas, (4th century), Bishop of Myra (Wikipedia)..
    Große Johannisstraße, facing the Handelskammer; sculpted by Rudolf Thiele.
  2. st. maria magdalena - St. Maria Magdalena / St. Mary Magdalene, Mary of Magdala is described, in the New Testament, as one of the most important women associated with Jesus during his ministry (Wikipedia)..
    Große Johannisstraße, left; sculpted by Friedrich Offermann.
  3. st. johannes - St. Johannes / St. John the Evangelist, conventional name for the author of the Gospel of John - considered to be the same person as John the Apostle (Wikipedia).
    Große Johannisstraße, right; sculpted by Otto Dobbertin and Friedrich Offermann.
  4. st. michael - St. Michael, the Archangel, the field commander of the Army of God. He is often depicted slaying Satan represented as a dragon, and with a shield with text quis ut deus (Who is like God?, a literal translation of the name Michael). (Wikipedia).
    corner Rathausmarkt / Große Johannisstraße; sculpted by August Vogel.
  5. st. catharina - St. Katharina von Alexandrien / St. Catharine of Alexandria, (early 4th century), Virgin princess, martyr; she was condemned to death on the spiked breaking wheel, but, at her touch, it shattered (Wikipedia).
    corner Rathausmarkt / Alter Wall; sculpted by Aloys Denoth.
  6. st. petrus - St. Petrus / St. Peter (possibly died AD 67), apostle, featured prominently in the New Testament and the Acts of the Apostles. Patron saint of locksmiths and confessors. Usually depicted holding the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven in his hand. Peter is the first Pope (Wikipedia).
    Alter Wall; sculpted by Wilhelm Kumm.
  7. st. jacobus - St. Jakob / St. James (d. 44), one of the Twelve Apostles. Patron saint of pilgrims, soldiers and cavalrymen. Depicted holding a pilgrim's staff decorated with a scallop shell. His remains are in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Spain) (Wikipedia)..
    Alter Wall, facing the Handelskammer; sculpted by Engelbert Peiffer.
  8. st. paulus - St. Paulus / St. Paul, the Apostle, (c. 5 - c. 67 ), persecuted the early followers of Jesus before switching sides and seeking to join them. He was instrumental in creating the Christian Church. He is the protector of tent-makers, theologians and the ecclesiastical press and is depicted with a sword. (Wikipedia)..
    Courtyard, left; sculpted by Robert Ockelmann.
  9. st. georg - St. Georg / St. George, (ca. 275/281 - 303), Roman soldier from Syria Palaestina and a priest in the Guard of Diocletian, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon (Wikipedia).
    Courtyard, right; sculpted by Bruno Kruse.
Moreover, on the smaller gables are squires with the coat of arms of the foreign trading posts of the Hanseatic League. These are the arms of Bruges, Novgorod, London and Bergen.

E. Side Façades: allegorical figures

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  1. plus ultra ("More beyond"), Fortschritt / Progress, young orator in Roman robe
  2. parta tueri ("To defend the things acquired"), Konservatismus / Conservatism, old orator with book and document.
    both sculpted by Friedrich Offermann.

    Alter Wall

  3. Justitia / Justice.
    sculpted by Friedrich Offermann.

F. Courtyard Façade: historical figures

In the courtyard façade are six figures in niches, representing bishops and counts, which were important for the history of the city of Hamburg.

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  1. ansgar - 831-865 - St. Ansgar von Bremen (near Corbie 801 - Bremen 865), Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Arthur Boné.
  2. adaldag - 936-988 - Adaldag (c. 900 - Bremen 988), Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, 937-988 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by J.Chr Wilhelm Everding.
  3. adalbert - 1043-1072 - Adalbert von Bremen (prob. Goseck c. 1000 - Goslar 1072), Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, 1043-1072 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Wilhelm Wandschneider.
  4. heinrich d. loewe - 1142-1180 † 1195 - Graf Heinrich der Löwe / Henry the Lion (1129 - 1195), member of the Guelph dynasty, founder of Braunschweig cathedral (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Heinrich Möller
  5. adolf iii. - 1164-1203 † 1225 - Graf Adolf III. von Lauenburg / Adolf III of Holstein (1160 - 1225), count of Schauenburg and Holstein, established a new settlement for traders on the banks of the Alster near the Neue Burg in Hamburg (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Robert Ockelmann
  6. adolf iv. - 1224-1239 † 1261 - Adolf IV. von Holstein / Adolf IV of Holstein (before 1205 - Kiel 1261) Graf von Holstein und Stormarn, 1227-1238 (Wikipedia)
    sculpted by Carl Friedrich Echtermeyer

G. Courtyard: Sculptures

The Hygieia Fountain is a separate entry on this website.

In the eastern corner:

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  1. Küchenjunge / Kitchen helper, keystone with a sculpture of a kitchen helper licking a spoon and holding a fork in his hand.
    above the kithcen window in the east corner, sculpted by Rudolf Thiele

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    Brautpforte (Bridge gate, In the western corner three small statues above and flanking a doorway, which was meant as the entrance for the registry office, where marriages should take place. Sculpted by Jacob Ungerer, 1896

  2. above: Hymen, god of marriage, with two torches.
  3. left: Adam with dog.
  4. left: Eve with apple and snake.

    The gate is never used for marriages, because the registry office never came into the town hall.

    Finally, at the entrances of the courtyard:

  5. Four granite lions, sculpted by Carl Börner.

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There were 25 German sculptors active:
  1. Boné: F1
  2. Börner: B19, G5
  3. Denoth: A1, B20, C1-C28, D5
  4. Dobbertin: D3
  5. Echtermeier: B13, F6
  6. Everding: F2
  7. Fitger: A6
  8. Garbers: A4, A5, B4
  9. Giesecke: B2
  10. Hartzer: B18
  1. Herzig: B15
  2. Hilgers: B14
  3. von Kramer: B10, B16
  4. Kruse: B1, D9
  5. Kumm: B3, D6
  6. Küsthardt: B8
  7. Möller: F4
  8. Ockelmann: B9, D8, F5
  9. Offermann: D2, D3, E1-3
  1. Peiffer: A (coat of arms), B12, D7 (he is also portrayed, C13)
  2. Pfannschmidt: B6
  3. Thiele (Rudolf): D1, G1
  4. Thiele (Theodor R.): A2, A3, B7
  5. Ungerer: B17, G2-4
  6. Vogel: B5, B11, D4
  7. Wandschneider: F3

Sculptors

Sources & Information

Tags

  • Courage
  • Denoth, Aloys
  • Dobbertin, Otto
  • Echtermeier, Carl Friedrich
  • Eggers, Hermann
  • Engineer
  • Everding, J.Chr Wilhelm
  • Façade with statues (secular)
  • Faith (Fides)
  • Farmer
  • Fitger, Arthur
  • Francis II (I) (Emperor)
  • Frederick Barbarossa (emperor)
  • Frederick II (emperor)
  • Fund Broker
  • Garbers, Carl
  • Gardener
  • Geographer
  • George, St.
  • Giesecke, Wilhelm
  • Harmony (allegory)
  • Hartzer, Friedrich
  • Hauer, Wilhelm
  • Heinrich VI (emperor)
  • Henry I the Fowler, King
  • Henry III the Black
  • Henry the Lion
  • Herzig, August
  • Hilgers, Karl
  • Hymen
  • James the Greater, St.
  • John the Evangelist, St.
  • Joseph II (emperor)
  • Judge
  • Justice (Justitia)
  • Kitchen helper
  • Kramer, Josef von
  • Kruse, Bruno
  • Kumm, Wilhelm
  • Küsthardt, Georg
  • Loose, Julius Rud.
  • Lothair II of Supplinburg
  • Louis the German
  • Louis the Pious
  • Mary Magdalene, St.
  • Mason
  • Maximilian I (emperor)
  • Maximilian II (emperor)
  • Mayor
  • Merchant
  • Meyer, Andreas
  • Michael, St.
  • Möller (1835-1929), Heinrich
  • Monarch
  • Mönckeberg, Johann Georg
  • Neumayer, Georg von
  • Nicholas, St.
  • Ockelmann, Robert
  • Offermann, Friedrich
  • Otto I (emperor)
  • Otto II (emperor)
  • Painter
  • Paul, St.
  • Peiffer, Engelbert Joseph (bust)
  • Peiffer, Engelbert Joseph
  • Peter, St.
  • Petersen, Carl Friedrich
  • Pfannschmidt, Friedrich
  • Phoenix
  • Potter
  • Progress
  • Rudolph I (emperor)
  • Ruths, J.G. Valentin
  • Scholar / scientist
  • Sculptor
  • Sea Captain
  • Shipbuilder
  • Shoemaker
  • Sieveking, Ernst Friedrich
  • Smith
  • Tailor
  • Teacher
  • Thiele, Rudolf
  • Thiele, Theodor Richard
  • Town Hall
  • Ungerer, Jacob
  • Vogel, August
  • Wandschneider, Wilhelm
  • Warnstedt, A.D.C.
  • Wisdom
  • Location N 53°33'1" E 9°59'32"

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    Item Code: dehh035; Photograph: 6 March 2015
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