Statues - Hither & Thither

France
Tréguier
Côtes-d'Armor

Bretagne

Rue Marcelin Berthelot

Calvaire de Réparation

Calvary of Protest

Yves Hernot II
1904

Tréguier /  Calvaire de Réparation   Tréguier /  Calvaire de Réparation

Description

Monumental granite Calvary with three crosses, five statues at the foot of the Calvary and eight statues on pillars.

  1. The centre point of the group is the Calvary with a 12 m high crucifix - the corpus is 3 m high and carved from a single block of pink granite. The crucifix is flanked by 10 m high crosses with the good and the bad murderer. At the foot of the crosses are five figures: from left to right:
    1. St. Longinus, name given in medieval and some modern Christian traditions to the Roman soldier who pierced Jesus in his side with a lance, the "Holy Lance" while he was on the Cross. The figure is unnamed in the gospels (Wikipedia).
    2. Mary the mother of James and Joseph, one of the female disciples of Jesus at the crucifixion (Wikipedia). (in the description in Revue de l'art chrétien her name is given as 'Marie-Marthe').
    3. St. Mary Magdalene (kneeling), Mary Magdalene or Mary of Magdala is described, in the New Testament, as one of the most important women associated with Jesus during his ministry (Wikipedia).
    4. St. Jean (apôtre) / St. John the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, probably identicual with St. John the Evangelist (Wikipedia).
    5. St. Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    A1. St. Longinus
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    A2. Mary, the mother of James and Joseph
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    A3. St. Mary Magdalene
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    A4. St. John the Apostle
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    A5. St. Mary
    The pedestal is decorated with a bas-relief of St. Yves between rich and poor. According to the 1903 decription, above this scene, were written in large letters, the words of Julian the Apostate: "Tu as vaincu, Galiléen" (Thou hast conquered, Galilean!) - this text seems to be no longer present. Below the relief, however, are the words of the Centurion at the cross (Mark 15:39) in Latin, Breton and French:

    vere hic homo filius dei erat st marc 15:39
    en gwirione an den ze e ca mab doue
    cet homme etait vraiment le fils du dieu

    Truly this man was the Son of God

    The St. Yves relief is flanked by the coats of arms of Pope Pius X (right) and of Pierre-Marie-Frédéric Fallières, Bishop of Saint-Brieuc and Tréguier (left).

    On the right side of the pedestal is the date "19 Mai 1904" and the sculptor's name. The left side is blank. On the back side are three text panels (see below).

  2. On both sides of the Calvary are two pillars with statues: from left to right:
      Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
      coats of arms of Pope Pius X
      Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
      St. Yves
      Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
      coats of arms of the Bishop of Saint-Brieuc

    1. St. Louis, king Louis IX of France, 1226-1270 (Wikipedia).
    2. St. Jeanne d'Arc - The Maid of Orléans (ca. 1412 - 1431), national heroine of France, beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. She led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (Wikipedia).
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    B1. St. Louis
    Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
    B2. St. Jeanne d'Arc

  3. The six pillars of the fence and gate to the street are topped with statues: from left to right:
    1. st andre
      St. André - apostle and the brother of Saint Peter; founder and the first bishop of the Church of Byzantium. Protector of fishermen, in particular. He is shown with a saltire cross, in accordance with the way in which he died (Wikipedia).
    2. st brieuc
      St. Brieuc / St. Brioc (early 6th century), Welshman who became the first Abbot of Saint-Brieuc in Brittany; one of the seven founder saints of Brittany (Wikipedia).
    3. st georges
      St. Georges - (ca. 275/281 - 303), Roman soldier from Syria Palaestina and a priest in the Guard of Diocletian, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon (Wikipedia) He is depicted as a soldier in a suit of armour or chain mail, in the West with St George's Cross emblazoned on his armour, or shield or banner.
    4. st maurice
      St. Maurice - leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century, and one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that group (Wikipedia).
    5. st tugdual
      St. Tugdual / St. Tudwal (died c. 564), Breton monk, considered one of the seven founder saints of Brittany (Wikipedia).
    6. st pierre
      St. Pierre - (possibly died AD 67), apostle, featured prominently in the New Testament and the Acts of the Apostles. Patron saint of locksmiths and confessors. Usually depicted holding the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven in his hand. Peter is the first Pope (Wikipedia)
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C1. St. André / St. Andrew
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C2. St. Brieuc / St. Brioc
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C3. St. Georges / St. George
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C4. St. Maurice
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C5. St. Tugdual / St. Tudwal
Tréguier - Calvaire de Réparation
C6. St. Pierre / St. Peter

Inscription(s)

Text panels on the back side:


Pour en perpetuer la memoire
Le XIX Mai MDCCCCIV
Ce Calvaire de reparation a ete inauguré
Par Son Eminence le Gardinan LAROURé
Archeveque de Rennes
Assisté de Monseigneur FALLIÈRES,
Evêque de Saint Brieuc et Treguier
Mgr DUBILLARD, Eveque de Quimper et Leon
Mr GUENEDAL Vicaire Capitulaire de Vannes
et Monseigneur DULONG de ROSNAY
Plus de six cents Pretres, parmi lesquels plusieurs
Dignitaires ecclesiastiques et une foule de fideles
Au nombre de plus de trente mille ont assiste
A cette splendide manifestation de la foi catholique
F. LE GOFF, Cure
deux cents jours d'indulgence
Ce Calvaire erige

(unreadable - most names)

Treguier le 19 Mai 1904

Signed: Y. HERNOT sculpteur-statuaire Lannion

Annotation

The monument was inaugurated on 19 May 1904 in presence of Cardinal Labouré. The immediate cause for the erection of this great Calvary was the inauguration of the statue of Renan on cathedral square. Renan's book Vie de Jésus (Life of Jesus) had caused controversy, and enraged many Christians. The placing of Renan' statue near the cathedral was interpreted as a challenge to Catholicism. The local clergy organised a protest: this Calvaire de Réparation, "a symbol of the triumphant ultramontaine church."

The construction of the calvary was described in the Revue de l'art chrétien 51 (1903), p. 531:

TRéGUIER. — On peut voir, aujourd'hui, dans le chantier du sculpteur Hernot à Lannion, plusieurs sujets qui doivent faire partie du Calvaire de Tréguier.
Le Christ, qui mesure 1m,80 de hauteur, est taillé dans un seul bloc de beau granit rose de 3 mètres de longueur. La croix du Sauveur aura 12 mètres de hauteur et les deux croix du bon et mauvais larron 10 mètres.
Il y aura cinq statues au pied du Calvaire : la sainte Vierge, saint Jean, Marie-Madeleine, à genoux, Marie-Marthe et Longin.
Le piédestal sera orné, au milieu, d'un bas-relief: saint Yves entre le pauvre et le riche. Au-dessus de cette scène, en grandes lettres, les paroles de Julien l'Apostat : « Tu as vaincu, Galiléen ! ! ! »
Aux deux angles : à droite, les armes de Sa Sainteté Pie X et à gauche les armes de Mgr l'évêque de Saint-Brieuc et Tréguier.
Sur les deux panneaux de côté seront gravés ces beaux vers de Brizeux:
Nous avons un cœur franc pour détester les traîtres.
Nous adorons Jésus, le Dieu de nos ancêtres...
Une plaque, posée à l'intérieur, rappellera le motif de l'érection du Calvaire et citera les pays de France qui contribuèrent le plus à cette érection par leurs offrandes.
Le Calvaire s'élèvera dans une propriété privée de 250 mètres carrés. Les dames Cadiou, de Tréguier, qui ont donné le terrain situé admirablement, ont acquis les plus justes titres à la reconnaissance des catholiques, non seulement de Bretagne, mais de toute la France.
Le Calvaire sera entouré d'une énorme grille monumentale raccordée par neuf gros piliers de granit. Chacun de ces piliers supportera une statue de 1m,80 de hauteur. Les deux statues de la porte seront saint Maurice et saint Georges. Les autres piliers recevront saint Malo, saint Paterne, saint Brieuc, saint Pol (de Léon), saint Corentin, saint Samson et saint Tucdual.
The statues of the seven founder saints of Brittany, mentioned in the last line, only Brioc and Tudwal were executed.

Calvary (calvaire)

Calvary or Golgotha was the site, outside of ancient Jerusalem's early first century walls, at which the crucifixion of Jesus occurred. In religius sculpture, a calvary is a type of monumental public crucifix with two or more adjoining statues.
In northern France, Belgium, and southern Netherlands calvaries were erected at the junction of routes and tracks or on cemeteries, usually showing the crucifix with statues of Saint John the Apostle and Saint Mary Magdalena.
The calvaire in Bretagne is distinguished from a simple crucifix cross by the inclusion of three-dimensional figures surrounding the Crucifixion itself, typically representing Mary and the apostles of Jesus, though later saints and symbolic figures may also be depicted.
In Central Europe, a calvary is a complex of shrines or chapels containing not only the sculpture or painting of Crucifixion of Jesus, but all the Stations of the Cross. (Wikipedia).

Sculptor

Sources & Information

Tags

  • Brioc (Brieuc), St.
  • Calvary
  • Christ
  • George, St.
  • Hernot II, Yves
  • Joan of Arc, St.
  • John the Apostle, St.
  • Longinus, St.
  • Louis IX (King of France)
  • Louis, St.
  • Mary (woman at crucifixion)
  • Mary Magdalene, St.
  • Mary, St.
  • Maurice, St.
  • Peter, St.
  • Tudwal (Tugdual), St.
  • Yves, St.
  • Location N 48°47'13" W 3°13'29"

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    Item Code: frbr018; Photograph: 27 May 2012
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    © Website and photos: René & Peter van der Krogt